Witold Janiczek


This paper presents a method of calculating the physical absorption of low concentrated gaseous nitrogen oxides in liquid nitric acid solutions. This absorption is used in the absorptive-regenerative process (AR process) to reduce the nitrogen oxide content in the exhaust gas from nitric acid plants. This method consists of the calculation of the effectiveness of the absorption in dependence on the liquid/gas ratio, the number of theoretical shelves adequate to the absorption system and other parameters of the process. The paper presents some results of calculations based on, for example, the accepted values of the initial parameters of the process. Conclusions formulated in this paper result from the calculations and concern the rational formation of the AR process as a whole and especially, the stage of regeneration.

Słowa kluczowe: nitric acid, nitrogen oxides, exhaust gas, physical absorption, regeneration

Polish Patent No. 51804, appl. 23.04.1963, Method of producing nitric acid.

Janiczek W., Błasiak E., Karolewicz S., Gajewski A., New prospects in the technology of nitric acid producing, Przemysł Chemiczny, Vol. 48, 1, 1967, 28-31.

Janiczek W., Neue Aussichten in der Technologie der Salpeter-säureherstellung, Chemische Technik, Vol. 19, 5, 1967, 269-282.

Anonim, Off-gas treatment at nitric acid plants, Brit. Chem. Eng. Proc. Rev., 1967, 55.

Mayland B.J., Improve nitric acid processes, Hydrocarbon Processing, 1972, 141-144.

Japanese Patent No. 4 815 766, N-oxide removal from exhaust gas, 18 February 1973.

Mayland B.J., Heinze R.C., Continuous Catalytic Absorption For NOx Emission Control, Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 69, 1973, 75-76.

Anonim, Oxidative tail gas scrubbing technique increases nitric acid plant product yield, Nitrogen, Vol. 93, 1975, 47-48.

Roudier L. et al., Nitric Acid Recovery from Waste Nitrous Gases by the COFAZ Process Fertilizer Nitrogen, The British Sulphur Corporation, London 1981/82, 561-569.

Roland L.D., Some Processes for the Treatment of Liquid and Gaseous Effluents in Nitrogen Fertilizer Production, Studies in Environmental Sci., Vol. 19, 1982, 369-374.

Patent USA No. 4 419 333, Process for removal of nitrogen oxides (16.07.1982).

Mayland B.J., Roland L.D., Nitrogen oxides emission control CDL/VITOK enhanced absorption process, Fourth International Conference on Chemistry for Environmental Protection, Toulouse, France 1983, 605-612.

Freitag W., Maurer R., Developments in Nitric Acid Plants, The Fertilizer Society, London, 01.12.1983.

Busik J.R, Foster K.E., Nitric Acid Plant Inspection Guide, National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), 1984, 25-50.

USA Patent No. 4 562 052, Process for the removal of nitrogen oxides from nitric acid plant tail gas, Appl. 1984.

Roiron, How to Solve the Problem of NOX Pollution from Nitric Acid Plants, Brochure of Rhone – Poulenc, ed. by Nitrogen, 1986.

Anonym: NOX Abatement Systems for Nitric Acid Plants, Nitrogen, Vol. 171, 1988, 25-34.

Kozłowski K., Wilk M., Possible improvements of the absorption stage in nitric acid plants (in Polish), Materials of Polish Forum Diminution of Nitrogen Oxides Content in Industrial off Gases, Puławy, Poland, 1988, 65-102.

Polish patent No.166366, Method and installation for reduction of the nitrogen oxides emission arised in industrial processes (in Polish), Property of Beco Eng. Co. USA Priority 1989.

Thomas D., Vanderschuren J., The absorption-oxidation of NOX with hydrogen peroxide for the treatment of tail gases, Chem. Eng. Science, Vol. 51, 1996, 2649-54.

Thomas D., Vanderschuren J., Modeling of NOX Absorption into Nitric Acid Solutions Containing Hydrogen Peroxide, Industrial and Eng. Chemistry Research, Vol. 36, 1997, 3315-3322.

Kristew I., Dimow W., Absorption of low concentrated and low oxidized nitrogen oxides in nitric acid solutions (in Rus.), Bulgarian Academy of science, Communications of the Departament of Chemistry, Vol. VIII, 3, 1975, 469-478.

Tereszczenko L.J., Kucza M.I.,. Panow W.P., Zubow W.W., The equilibrium of nitrogen oxides with nitric acid solutions, Zhurnal Prikl. Chim., Vol. 52, 3, 1979, 1743-1747.

Lefers J.B., de Boks F.C., van den Bleek C.M., van den Berg R.J., The Oxidation and Absorption of Nitrogen Oxides in Nitric Acid in Relation to the Tail Gas Problem of Nitric Acid Plants, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 35, 1980, 145-153.

Carla G., Pigford R., Absorption of Nitric Oxide in Nitric Acid and Water, Industrial Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, Vol. 22, 1983, 329-335.

Weisweiler W.W., Thiemann K.M., Scheibler E., Wiegand K.W., Absorption of NO2/N2O4 in nitric acid, Chem. Eng. Technol., Vol. 13, 1, 1990, 91-97.

Weisweiler W.W., Thieman K.M., Scheibler E., Wiegand K.W., Absorption of Nitric Oxide in Dilute Nitric Acid, Chem. Engng. and Technol., Vol. 14, 1991, 270-274.

Vosper A.J., Dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide in the gaseous phase, Journal of the Chemical Society, 1970, 625-627.

Seshadri D.N., Vistanath D.S., Kuloor N.R., Thermodynamic properties of the System N2O4 = 2NO2 = 2NO + O2, AICHE Journal, Vol. 16, 3, 1970, 420-425.

Abel E., Proisl J., Über das Gleichgewicht zwischen Stickstoff-Monoxyd, -Dioxyd und –Trioxyd, Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie, 35, Vol. 9, 1929, 712-715.

Beattie I.R., Bell S.W., Dinitrogen Trioxide. Part I. Stability in the Gaseous Phase, Journal of Chemical Society, 1957, 1681-1686.

Beattie I.R., Bell S.W., Vosper A.J., Dinitrogen Trioxide, Part II and III, Journal of Chemical Society, 1960, 4796-4802.

Karawajew M.M., Skworcow I.G.A., The equilibrium at the formation of the nitric acid in the gaseous phase (in Rus.), Zhurnal Fiz. Chimii, Vol. 35, 5, 1962, 1072-1074.

Waldorf J.M., Babb A.L., Vapor phase equilibrium of NO, NO2, H2O and HNO2, The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 39, No. 2. 1963, 432-435.

Burdick C.L., Freed E.S., The equilibrium between nitric oxide, nitrogen peroxide and aqueous solutions of nitric acid, Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol. 43, 1921, 518-530.

Chambers F.S., Sherwood T.K., Absorption of Nitrogen dioxide by aqueous solutions, Ind. and Eng. Chem., Vol. 29, 1937, 1415-1422. Pogrebnaja W.L., Usow A.P., Baranow A.W., Maczigin A.A., The solubility of oxygen in nitric acid solutions (Rus.), Chimija i Chim. Tiechnologija, vol. 17, 1971, 16-20.

Theobald H., Messungen zum Gleichgewicht Salpetersäure/nitrose Gase, Chemie – Ingenieur – Technik, Vol. 40, 15, 1968, 763-764.

Pozin M.E., Kopylew B.A., Tereszczenko L.J., Bielczenko G.W., A method of computing the equilibrium composition of gaseous phase contaning nitrogen oxides in equilibrium with liquid solutions of nitric acid (in Rus.), Zhurn. Prikl. Chim., 1963, 14-24.

Sproesser W.C., Taylor G.B., Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of Nitric Acid, Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol. 43, 1921, 1782-1787.

Wilson G.L., Miles F.D., The Partial Pressures of Nitric Acid – Water Mixtures from 0–20°C, Transactions of the Faraday Society, Vol. 35, 1940, 356-363.

Tereszczenko L.J., Panow W.P., Pozin M.E., The equilibrium between nitrogen oxides and nitric acid solutions, Zhurn. Prikl. Chim., Vol. 41, 3, 1968, 487-492.

Klemenc A., Zur Kenntnis der Salpetersäure. Methoden zur Gasanalyse im System N2 – NO ‒ NO2 – N2O4 – N2O3 – HNO2 – HNO3, Monatshefte f. Chemie, Vol. 83, 2, 1952, 334-345.

Taylor G.B., Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Solutions of Nitric Acid, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 17, 1925, 633-635.

Semel G.V., Bestimmung von N2O3, NO2 und HNO2 in Salpetersäure, Chemie–Ingenieur‒Technik, Vol. 38, 1966, 888-889.

Bode H., Über die Salpetersäurereduction durch Stickoxyd 1. Gleichgewicht, Zeitschr. Anorg. U. Allgem. Chem., Vol. 195, Issue 1, 1931, 195-200.

Jaroszyńska-Wolińska J., Ozone application to a two stage NO removal from waste gases, Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, Vol. 4, 2002, 5-7.

Miller J.S., Wilk M., Chacuk A., Ledakowicz S., Ozonation of nitrous acid in aqueous nitric acid solutions, IOA 17th World Ozone Congress – Strasbourg, France, 2005.

Chacuk A., Miller J.S., Wilk M., Ledakowicz S., Intensification of nitrous acid oxidation, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 62, 2007, 7446-7453.

Skalska K., Ledakowicz S., Wilk M., Miller J.S., Oxidation of NOX in flue gases by ozone and UV radiation, XXIII Photochemistry Symposium IUPAC, Ferrara, Italy 2010.

Skalska K., Miller J.S, Ledakowicz S., Trends in NOX abatement: A review, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, 2010, 3976-3899.

Ledakowicz S., Skalska K., Miller J.S., Wilk M., Nitrogen oxides ozonation as a metod for NOX emission abatement, World Congress and Exhibition IOA IUVA,Paris, France 2011.

Skalska K., Miller J.S., Ledakowicz S., Kinetic model of NOX ozonation and its experimental verification, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 66, 2011, 3386-3391.