Carbamazepine and other anti-epileptic drugs in the aquatic environment

Piotr Rezka,

Wojciech Balcerzak,

Justyna Kwaśny


This paper is part of a series of publications discussing the prevalence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment and the effectiveness of their removal and degradation during wastewater treatment processes. The paper discusses the problem of the presence of carbamazepine and other anti-epileptic drugs. The authors reviewed the basic characteristic parameters of these compounds, and based on the analysed literature data, the problem of anti-epileptic drugs, mainly carbamazepine, in the aquatic environment. Carbamazepine appears to be exceptionally persistent at municipal wastewater treatment plants as has been confirmed by current studies on its elimination and degradation, as well as reports on its presence in surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. The latest studies demonstrated highly effective removal of carbamazepine during oxidation processes. The application of these methods in real life situations should enable the effective protection of the aquatic environment.

Słowa kluczowe: carbamazepine, anti-epileptic drugs, wastewater, surface water, groundwater