Assessing environmental actions from modern meteorology

Svein M. Fikke,

Bjørn Egil K. Nygaard


This paper gives an overview of current achievements where modern weather forecasting techniques are implemented for the assessment of especially ice and wind loadings on electrical overhead lines, TV towers, masts and similar infrastructure. Modern numerical weather prediction models (NWP ) incorporate far more details on e.g. cloud physics and dynamics than those generally necessary for regular weather forecasts. Such models describe in principle all physical and dynamical processes in the atmosphere in 3-D. In combination with detailed data on the physical properties of land and water surfaces, it is now possible to obtain realistic values of weather parameters related to wind, turbulence, precipitation and atmospheric icing down to a horizontal scale of a few hundred meters. Such models are therefore powerful tools for the planning and final design for various infrastructures in remote terrain where little or no weather data can provide sufficient bases for the establishment of extreme weather loads necessary for their design.

Słowa kluczowe: wind engineering, atmospheric icing, wet snow load, environmental actions, numerical weather prediction models

[1] D ucloux H., Nygaard, B.E.K., 50-year return-period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design in France, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, 2014, 3031-3041.

[2] Fikke S.M., Modern meteorology and atmospheric icing, Proc. IWAIS XI, Montreal, June 2005.

[3] I nternational Standard Organization, 2000: IS O 12494 “Atmospheric Icing”, IS O 2000.

[4] L iu C., Ikeda K., Thompson G., Rasmussen R., Dudhia J., High-resolution simulations of wintertime precipitation in the Colorado headwaters region: sensitivity to physics parameterizations, Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 139, 2011, 3533-3553.

[5] N ygaard B.E.K., Kristjánsson J.E., Berge E., Makkonen L., Using NWP models to simulate in-cloud atmospheric icing episodes, Proc. IWAIS XII , Yokohama, October 2007.

[6] N ygaard B.E.K., Fikke S.M., Elvertrø L., Harstveit K., Modeling icing in exposed mountain terrain, Proc. IWAIS XII , Yokohama, October 2007.

[7] N ygaard B.E.K, Evaluation of icing simulations for the COST 727 icing test sites in Europe, Proc. IWAIS XIII , Andermatt, Switzerland, September 2009.

[8] N ygaard B.E.K., Kristjánsson J.E., Makkonen L., Prediction of in-cloud icing conditions at ground level using the WRF model, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 50, No. 12, 2011, 2445-2459.

[9] N ygaard B.E.K., Seierstad I. A., Veal A.T., A new snow and ice load map for mechanical design of power lines in Great Britain, Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 108, 2014, 28-35.

[10] T hompson G., Field P.R., Rasmussen R.M., Hall W.D., Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme. Part II: Implementation of a new snow parameterization, Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 136(12), 2008, 5095-5115.