Humic substances as by-product precursors generated during oxidation and disinfection – review of the literature

Dominika Łomińska


Humic substances (HS), including soluble fulvic acids (FA), are commonly occurring pollutants, particularly in surface waters. HS were considered as substances, which are harmless for humans until now. They were mainly removed from the water because of turbidity, color and as a source of odor. HS in the process oxidation and disinfection are precursors of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances. Because of this, an analysis has been conducted, discussing their construction, properties and methods used of their disposal.

Słowa kluczowe: humic substances, fulvic acids, water treatment, wastewater treatment