Świat jako podstawowa kategoria filozofii wychowania Martina Bubera

Marek Kościelniak

Abstrakt

The world as the basic category of Martin Buber’s philosophy of education

The article is devoted to the conceptual category “world”, which plays an important role in the philosophy of Martin Buber and is also an essential element of the concept of education. The role of this category is evidenced by the statements contained in the speech “What is educational” [Uber das Erzieherische]: the world “begets the person in the individual”, “educates man”. These statements are explained by the presentation of Buber’s concept of the duality of the world as “Ono world” [Eswelt] and “Ty world” [Duwelt]. The question of how to overcome the crisis of the contemporary world caused by the dominance of the deterministic, monological, objectifying “Ono world” over the world of authentic interpersonal relations, that is, the “You world”, was identified as the critical problem of the philosophy under consideration. In his fundamental work “Me and You”, the author argues that overcoming this crisis depends on a certain kind of transfer of God’s presence into people’s daily lives, which anyone can experience in a direct relationship with Him (“absolute relationship”, “pure relationship”). According to the author, the intensification and concentration of the moments of relations in the matter of human life will bring about a gradual transformation of all spheres of the world: the sphere of life with nature will become the Cosmos (a reality in which a meaningful, i.e. divine order will prevail), the sphere of interpersonal relations will become Eros (reality, in which the order of love will reign), and the sphere of the spirit will become the Logos (a reality in which relational events will impregnate creative thought). The deepening of the philosophical conception of the world leads to the conclusion that Buber, speaking of the world that “educates man”, means the world understood as Cosmos, Eros and Logos. The educator should focus on such a world and present it to the pupil in an educational relationship.

Słowa kluczowe: Martin Buber, świat, wychowanie, Ja i Ty, świat Ono, świat Ty, kryzys świata, właściwości relacji, sfery relacji, relacja absolutna, Kosmos, Eros, Logos, world, education, Me and You, It-world, You-world, world crisis, properties of relations, spheres of relations, absolute relation, Cosmos
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