Labor market duality in Japan: A resilience perspective

Anna Maria Dzienis

Abstrakt

DUALIZM RYNKU PRACY W JAPONII W PERSPEKTYWIE RESILIENCE

W ciągu ostatniej dekady pogłębiała się dychotomia japońskiego rynku pracy między „odporną” formą zatrudnienia regularnego a wysoce elastyczną, ale wrażliwą formą zatrudnienia nieregularnego. Zjawisko to, w połączeniu z wciąż aktualnymi doświadczeniami kryzysu związanego z pandemią COVID-19 oraz nieustannie dokonującą się zmianą otoczenia powodowaną rosnącym postępem technologicznym, nasuwa pytanie o trwałość tradycyjnych japońskich praktyk zatrudnienia na całe życie. W artykule poddano analizie środowisko pracy w Japonii za pomocą modelu „odporności” rynku pracy, rozszerzonego o czynnik kulturowy, który pozwala na pełniejsze zrozumienie japońskiego systemu zatrudnienia. Zdaniem autorki ostatnie koncepcje co do zmiany organizacji zatrudnienia w Japonii oraz coraz głośniej i częściej podnoszona konieczność tych zmian mogą przyczynić się do długo oczekiwanej transformacji.

References

Abegglen J.C., The Japanese factory: aspects of its social organization, the Center for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 1958.

Aoyagi C., Ganelli, G., Does revamping Japan’s dual labor market matter?, “Economic Systems” 2015, vol. 39.

Arai Y., Ichimura H., Kawaguchi D., The educational upgrading of Japanese youth, 1982–2007: Are all Japanese youth ready for structural reforms?, “Journal of The Japanese and International Economies” 2015, vol. 37.

Asano Y., Overview of Non-regular Employment in Japan, The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training, JILPT Reports 2010, no. 10.

Berkes F., Folke C., Linking Social and Ecological Systems for Resilience and Sustainability, Beijer  Discussion Paper Series 1994, no. 52.

Bigos M., Qaran W., Fenger M., Koster F., Mascini P., van der Veen R., Review Essay on Labour Market Resilience, INSPIRES, Working paper series 2013, no. 1.

Bobowski S., Drelich-Skulska B., After Three Years of Abenomics. Challenges and Recommendations for the Economic Revitalisation Policy in Japan, “Transformations in Business & Economics” 2016, vol. 15, no. 2A (38A).

Brown W., Japanese Management. The Cultural Background, “Monumenta Nipponica” 1966, vol. 21, no. 1/2.

Carter L., Nasuda K., An overview of Japanese employment law, “DLA Piper, BRIEFING”, January–February 2014, vol. 21, no. 1.

Dzienis A.M., The Potential Impacts of Brexit on the Japanese Economy [in] Brexit and the Consequences for International Competitiveness, ed. A.M. Kowalski, New York 2018.

European Commission, Employment and decent work, https://ec.europa.eu/international-partnerships/topics/employment-and-decent-work_en (accessed: 5.07.2021).

Folke C., Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses, “Global Environmental Change” 2006, vol. 16.

Folke C., Biggs R., Norström A.V., Reyers B., Rockström J., Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science, “Ecology and Society” 2016, vol. 21, issue 3.

Folke C., Carpenter S.R., Walker B., Scheffer M., Chapin T., Rockström J., Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability, “Ecology and Society” 2010, vol. 15, no. 4. Global Gender Gap Report 2021, Insight Report, March 2021, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2021.pdf (accessed: 12.07.2021).

Hirano M., Japan’s GDP likely plunged 26% in April-June quarter, Nikkei Asia, 1 August 2020, https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Japan-s-GDP-likely-plunged-26-in-April-June-quarter (accessed 5.07.2021).

Hite R.E., Hawes J.M., Understanding The Japanese Culture For Business Success, “Journal of Managerial Issues” 1991, vol. 3, no. 1.

ILO, Decent work and the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/sdg-2030/lang--en/index.htm 24.04.2021 (accessed: 24.04.2021).

Imahashi R., Pandemic widens gender gap across Asia. India and Indonesia tumble in WEF ranking; Japan and South Korea inch up, Nikkei Asia, 31 March 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Society/Pandemic-widens-gender-gap-across-Asia (accessed: 12.07.2021).

Industry Revitalization Plan, Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/keizaisaisei/pdf/en_sesakurei.pdf (accessed: 12.07.2021).

Ishino I., The Oyabun-Kobun: A Japanese Ritual Kinship Institution, “American Anthropologist” 1953, vol. 55, issue 5.

Jacoby S., The Origins of Internal Labor Markets in Japan, “Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society” 1979, vol. 18, issue 2.

Japan Revitalization Strategy – Japan is Back, Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, 14 June 2013, https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/keizaisaisei/pdf/en_saikou_jpn_hon.pdf (accessed: 12.07.2021).

206 GDAŃSKIE STUDIA AZJI WSCHODNIEJ 2021/20

Kihara L., Japan eyes another big stimulus package before possible Sept poll – Nikkei, Reuters, 10 June 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/japans-suga-compile-big-stimulus-packagearound-summer-nikkei-2021-06-09/ (accessed: 8.07.2021).

Kinebuchi T., 日本的雇用制度再考「タテ社会」の力学を基礎に[Revisit to the Japanese Style of Employment System: Based on the Dynamics Stemming from the “Vertically-Structured Society”], “Josai Junior College Bulletin” 2015, vol. 32(1).

Kovacic K., The Making of National Robot History in Japan: Monozukuri, Enculturation and Cultural Lineage of Robots, The Nissan Institute of Japanese Studies, School of Interdisciplinary Area Studies, University of Oxford, UK 2018.

Martin J.P., Activation and Active Labour Market Policies in OECD Countries: Stylized Facts and Evidence on their Effectiveness, “IZA Policy Paper” 2014, no. 84.

Mizuno Y., ジョブ型を甘くみるな. 人事﹒組織、根本から見直しを[Do not underestimate jobu-gata. Towards radical revision of personnel and organization], Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei), 20 January 2021, https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXZQODK184VY0Y1A110C2000000/ (accessed: 24.04.2021).

Moriguchi Ch., Ono H., Institutional Change in Japan. Japanese Lifetime Employment: A Century’s Perspective, Working Paper 2004, Stockholm.

Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei), 年功﹒順送り人事では変化に後れを取る[The system falls behind the change because of seniority based wages and postponed promotion], 16 June 2020, https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGKKZO60365470V10C20A6EA1000/ (accessed: 24.04.2021).

North D.C., Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge 1990.

OECD, Hours worked, https://data.oecd.org/emp/hours-worked.htm (accessed: 12.07.2021).

OECD, Long-term unemployment rate, https://data.oecd.org/unemp/long-term-unemployment-rate.htm (accessed: 5.07.2021).

OECD, Youth unemployment rate, https://data.oecd.org/unemp/youth-unemployment-rate.htm (accessed: 5.07.2021).

OECD.Stat, Public expenditure and participant stock on LMP, https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=LMPEXP (accessed: 12.07.2021).

OECD.Stats, Employment/population ratio, https://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=54742 (accessed: 9.07.2021).

OECD.Stats, Employment: Share of employed in part-time employment, https://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?queryid=54746 (accessed: 9.07.2021).

Okutsu A., Sugiura E., Five things to know about Japan’s work reform law, Nikkei Asia, 29 June 2018, https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Five-things-to-know-about-Japan-s-work-reform-law (accessed: 12.07.2021).

Ono H., Japanese Labor Market Reform. Why is It So Difficult?, Working Paper April 2002, no. 146, Stockholm School of Economics.

Packalen E., Working life in Japan, Eurofound, 6 March 2019, https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/country/japan#actors-and-institutions (accessed: 10.05.2021).

Pisano U., Resilience and Sustainable Development: Theory of resilience, systems thinking and adaptive governance, ESDN Quarterly Report 2012, no. 26.

Schaede U., What happened to the Japanese Model?, “Review of International Economics” 2004, vol. 12, no. 2.

Shibata S., Gig Work and the Discourse of Autonomy: Fictitious Freedom in Japan’s Digital Economy, “New Political Economy” 2020, vol. 25, issue 4.

Soini K., Dessein J., Culture-Sustainability Relation: Towards a Conceptual Framework, “Sustainability” 2016, vol. 8(167).

Song J., Economic Distress, Labor Market Reforms, and Dualism in Japan and Korea, “Governance-AnInternational Journal of Policy. Administration and Institutions”, July 2012, vol. 25, no. 3.

Song J., Inequality in the Workplace: Labor Market Reform in Japan and Korea, Cornell University Press 2014.

Urban M.C., Johal S., Understanding the Future of Skills, Trends and Global Policy Responses, Skills Next 2020, https://fsc-ccf.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/UnderstandingTheFutureOf-Skills-PPF-JAN2020-EN.pdf (accessed: 12.07.2021).

Walker B.H., Resilience: what it is and is not, “Ecology and Society” 2020, vol. 25, no. 2.

Walker B., Holling C.S., Carpenter S.R., Kinzig A., Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–ecological Systems, “Ecology and Society” 2004, vol. 9, issue 2.

Walker B., Salt D., Reid W., Resilience Thinking. Sustaining Ecosystems and People in Changing World, Washington – Covelo – London 2006.

Watanabe H.R., Institutional Change Under Neoliberal Pressure: Japanese Regulatory Reforms in Labor and Financial Markets, “Asian Politics & Policy” 2015, vol. 7, no. 3.

World Bank Share of youth not in education, employment or training, total (% of youth population) – Japan, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.NEET.ZS?locations=JP (accessed: 5.07.2021).

World Bank, Employment to population ratio, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.EMP.TOTL.SP.ZS?locations=JP (accessed: 9.07.2021).

World Bank, Labor force participation rate, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.ACTI.ZS?locations=JP (accessed: 5.07.2021).

World Bank, Part time employment, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.PART.ZS?locations=JP (accessed: 9.07.2021).

Yamamoto I., The Need for Work Style Reform in Japan & Its Impact, Special Article 1, “Japan SPOTLIGHT”, May–June 2017.

Yoshino K., Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary Japan: A sociological enquiry, London – New York 1992.