Ochrona zabytków archeologicznych w prawie japońskim

Paula Chmielowska

Abstrakt

Protection of archaeological sites in Japanese law

In popular perception Japan is often associated with cherry blossoms, the samurai, the geishas, rice fields and delicious ramen soup. However, each of these elements is relatively new. The country’s culture is rich and ancient, and the Japanese are very aware of their heritage and are eager to protect it. The Japanese government encourages universal public participation in supporting and appreciating artistic activities. The most important cultural goods are considered national treasures, which are particularly valuable to the world and to the Japanese nation. These can be works of art such as paintings, sculptures or architectural masterpieces, as well as other forms of artistic expression such as suiseki – art of artistic display of stones, chadō – tea ceremony, ikebana – flower arrangement, and even the artists themselves. The purpose of this article is to outline the Japanese heritage law with respect to protection of archaeological sites; the long history of the island nation means the Japanese archaeologists have plenty of sites to work on. Since 1945, archaeological research has become an important way of constructing the Japanese national identity. While the key goal of archeology in Japan is still about building national identity in relation to the past, there is a noticeable diversity in research goals and methodology used by the current generation of practicing archaeologists.

References

Agency for Cultural Affairs, Bunkazaihogohou Gojyunenshi (Fifty years of history of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties), Tokyo 2001.

Akima T., The Origins of the Grand Shrine of Ise and the Cult of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu Ōmikami, „Japan Review” 1993, no. 4.

Basho M., Summer grass, https://matsuobashohaiku.home.blog/2019/04/01/summer-grass-%E5%A4%8F%E8%8D%89-natsuka/ (dostęp: 15.11.2021).

Befu H., Civilisation and culture: Japan in search of identity [w:] Japanese civilisation and the modern world: Life and society, eds. T. Umesao, H. Befu, J. Kreiner, Senri Ethnological series 16, Osaka 1984.

Bestor T.C., Countries and their cultures, https://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Japan.html (dostęp: 15.11.2021).

Bowles G., Japanese People, Origin of, KEJ 1983, vol. 4.

Brennan M., The stars and the stones, London 1983.

Farris W., Population, Disease, and Land in Early Japan, 645–900, Cambridge, MA 1985.

Fawcett C., Archaeology and Japanese identity [w:] Multicultural Japan, eds. D. Denoon, M. Hudson, G. McCormack, T. Morris-Suzuki, Cambridge 1996.

Grapard A.G., Nature and Culture in Japan, „Kyoto Journal”, 30.11.2012, https://kyotojournal.org/culture-arts/nature-and-culture-in-japan/ (dostęp: 19.02.2021).

Habu J., Fawcett C., Jomon archaeology and the representation of Japanese origins, „Antiquity” 1999, vol. 73, issue 281.

Inada T., Archaeological Heritage Management and Administrative Reform, „Koukogaku Kenkyuu (Quarterly of Archaeological Studies)” 2006, vol. 53, no. 2.

Japan – Country Profile, Facts, News and Original Articles, Global Sherpa, http://globalsherpa.org/japan/ (dostęp: 15.11.2021).

Katayama K., The Japanese as an Asia-Pacific Population [w:] Multicultural Japan: Paleolithic to Postmodern, eds. D. Denoon, M. Hudson, G. McCormack, T. Morris-Suzuki, New York 1996.

Keally C.T., Japanese Archeology, http://www.t-net.ne.jp/~keally/jpnarch.html (dostęp: 20.02.2021).

Louw M., The Craft of Memory and Forgetting, „The South African Journal of Art History” 2017, vol. 32, no. 2.

Nakamura K., Bunkazaihogoseido Gaisetsu (Outline of the system for the protection of cultural properties), Tokyo 1999.

Okada Y., Habu J., Public presentation and archaeological research: A case study from the Jomon Period Sannai Maruyama site, Paper presented at the 1995 Chacmool Conference, Calgary 1995.

Okamura K., Japan: Cultural Heritage Management Education [w:] Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, ed. C. Smith, Osaka 2014.

Okamura K., Matsuda A., Archeological Heritage Management in Japan [in:] Cultural Heritage Management, 2010, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292866117_Archaeological_Heritage_Management_in_Japan (dostęp: 15.11.2021).

Okamura M., Babadan A., Pearson R., Ancient Japan, contribution to Pearson, New York 1992.

Omori Katsuyama Stone Circle, Jamon Prehistoric Sites in Northern Japan, https://jomon-japan.jp/en/jomon-sites/omori-katsuyama/ (dostęp: 8.01.2021).

Pearson R., Ancient Japan, New York 1992.

Sasaki R.J., Imazu S. et al., The history, status and future of Underwater Cultural Heritage Management in Japan, The MUA Collection, http://www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1630 (dostęp: 18.11.2021).

Tanaka M., Japan [w:] Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage: A Comparative Study of World Cultural Resource Management Systems, ed. H. Cleere, Cambridge 1984.

Tsuboi K., Issues in Japanese Archaeology [w:] Acta Asiatica 63, eds. K. Tsuboi, Toho Gakkai, Tokyo 1992.

UNESCO, Hiraizumi – Temples, Garden and Archaeological Sites Representing the Buddhist Pure Land, https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1277/ (dostęp: 10.01.2021).

Watanabe T., Maizou Bunkazai Kankei Toukei Shiryou No Kaisetsu To Bunseki: Heisei 19 Nendo Ban (Statistical data on buried cultural properties in 2007: Commentary and Analysis), Gekkan Bunkaza, Tokyo 2008.

Young D., Young M., The Art of Japanese Architecture, North Clarendon 2007.