Budowa nowej socjalistycznej kultury: mobilne zespoły projekcyjne jako narzędzie propagandy w Chińskiej Republice Ludowej w latach 1949–1966

Oskar Gruszczyński

Abstrakt

Building a new socialist culture: Mobile projection teams as a propaganda tool in People’s Republic of China 1949–1966

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) embarked on a groundbreaking project: the creation of new art for “workers, peasants and soldiers.” In this great endeavour designed to shape the “new socialist man,” film proved to be one of the most effective tools and the so-called mobile projection teams (MPT) crisscrossing the country were assigned the task of bringing a new politicised art to people living in the most distant parts of China. The present article aims to describe the mechanisms of centrally-planned culture as it functioned in the vast countryside and prove that film projectionists were as important as films itself for the promotion of new state ideology. Through an analysis of Chinese press articles from the 1949–1966 period and the use of most recent Western scholarship in the field the author aims to bring new life to the study of the so far relatively overlooked aspect of Chinese filmmaking: the “seventeen years” (1949–1966) period. Special attention being paid to contemporary accounts of MPT’s work, the author also avails himself of works of fiction in order to present a multi-faceted view of an important aspect of PRC state propaganda. The author believes that this new scope of study will be beneficial not only to scholars of Chinese culture but also bring the largely unknown history of the currently biggest film market in the world to light.

References

Bao W., Fiery Cinema: The Emergence of an Affective Medium in China 19151945, Minneapolis 2015.

Barnard T., The Machine Operator: Deus Ex Machina of the Storefront Cinema, „Framework” 2002, no. 1.

Baudry J.-L., Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus, „Film Quarterly” 1974–1975, no. 2.

Bazin A., Film i rzeczywistość, Warszawa 1963.

Chen H.T., Cinemas, Highways, and the Making of Provincial Space: Mobile Screenings in Jiangsu, China, 19331937, „Wide Screen” 2018, no. 1.

Chen Y., Creating the New Man: From Enlightenment Ideals to Socialist Realities, Honolulu 2009.

Dapo yandong bu huodong de chenghui 打破严冬不活动的成灰[Trzeba zerwać z przyzwyczajeniem do bierności fizycznej w czasie mrozów], „Dianying Fangying Ziliao” 1956, no. 3.

Dianying fangyingdui buyao pa jin shanqu 电影放映队不要怕进山区[Mobilne zespoły projekcyjne nie powinny obawiać się wchodzić na tereny górskie], „Renmin Ribao”, 2.09.1953.

DeMare B., Maos cultural army: Drama Troupes in Chinas Rural Revolution, Cambridge 2015.

Dutton M., Disciplinary Projects and Carceral Spread: Focauldian Theory and Chinese Practice,  „Economy and Society” 1992, no. 3.

Gallagher S., Zahavi D., Phenomenological Mind, London 2008.

Kenez P., The birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 19171929, London 1985.

Gimple D., Civilizing Bodies: Somatic Engineering in China [w:] Sports Across Asia: Politics, Cultures, and Identities, eds. K. Bromber, B. Krawietz, J. Maguire, New York 2013.

Huoyue zai qunshan zhong de dianying fangyingdui 活跃在群山中的电影放映队[Działający pośród gór mobilny zespół projekcyjny], „Renmin Ribao”, 13.06.1963. Li R. 李瑞东, „Projekcja Filmowa” 1966, no. 1–2.

Li S. 李舒凯, Wo shi yige Xin Zhongguo de fangyingyuan 我是一个新中国的放映员[Jestem projekcjonistką Nowych Chin], „Dazhong Dianying” 1951, no. 26.

Li X. 衣向东, Aiqing Xijie 爱情西街[Zachodnia alejka miłości], Guilin 2008.

Lu X., Moulding the Socialist Subject: Cinema and Chinese Modernity, Boston 2020.

Mai Chen T., Proletarian White and Working Bodies in Maos China, „Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique” 2003, no. 2.

Mai Chen T., Textual communities and localized practices of Film in Maoist China [w:] Film, History, and Cultural Citizenship: Sites of Production, eds. T. Mai Chen, D.S. Churchill, New York 2007.

Mai Chen T., The Human-Machine Continuum in Maoism: The Intersection of Soviet Socialist Realism, Japanese Theoretical Physics, and Chinese Revolutionary Theory, „Cultural Critique” 2012, no. 80.

Mauss M., Techniques, Technology, and Civilization, New York 2006.

Meisner M., Maos China and After, New York 1986.

Meng L. 孟玲, Tapo bingshan wei mumin 踏破冰山为牧民[Pokonując mroźne góry dla pasterzy], „Dianying Fangying” 1964, no. 12.

Pang L., The Visual Representation of the Barefoot Doctor: Between Medical Policy and Political Struggle, „Positions: Asia Critique” 2014, no. 4.

Pingdu dianying fangyingdui 平度电影放映队, Rang shehuizhuyi sixiang chuanbian xin nongcun: tan nongcun puji fangying de jige guanjian wenti 让社会主义思想传遍新农村——谈农村普及放映的几个关键问题[Niech socjalistyczna myśl dotrze do każdej nowej wsi: o kilku kluczowych problemach związanych z upowszechnianiem projekcji na terenach wiejskich], „Dianying Fangying” 1964, no. 8.

Tang P. 唐佩泽, Guojingxian shang de yizhi fangyingdui 国境线上的一支放映队[Mobilny zespół projekcyjny na rubieżach kraju], „Renmin Ribao”, 23.08.1956.

Yinmu guashang Dabashan——Shaanxi Pinglixian dianying fangyingdui disandui de yingxiong gushi 银幕挂上大巴山——陕西平利县电影放映队第三队的英雄故事[Wznosząc srebrny ekran na górze Ba. Bohaterska opowieść o trzecim zespole projekcyjnym z powiatu Pingli w prowincji Shaanxi], „Renmin Ribao”, 13.06.1960.

Zhongguo dianying faxing fangying gongsi 中国电影发行放映公司, Zhongguo dianying faxing fangying tongji ziliao huibian 中国电影发行放映统计资料汇编[Kompendium statystyczne chińskiej produkcji i dystrybucji filmowej], Beijing 1961.