Trendy w emigracji siły roboczej krajów bałtyckich w latach 2003–2013

Jarosław Wołkonowski


Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia have regained independence and accession to the EU have brought great transformations in economic and social life of the Baltic States. One of the determinants of these changes is international emigration. For many years Lithuania has maintained the highest rate of migration in the EU. Latvia follows close behind. The aim of this article is to determine the causes of such state of affairs and to assess the changes in emigration in the Baltic countries during the studied period, according to the level, structure, and destination countries. The study is based on the data acquired from statistical offices of the countries in question and the EU. The main reason for emigration of the inhabitants of these countries is striving for a higher level of prosperity. Economic theories of migration divide these reasons into „push factors” and „pull factors”. The former include low standards of living in the country of birth or government policy, while the latter – good economic prospects in the destination country. Considerable impact on emigration was made by the crisis that started in Lithuania and Latvia in 2009 and resulted in over 15% decline in GDP. Young and middle-aged people constitute the main part of the emigrants in the studied countries and the nature of their migration is primarily profit-making.

Słowa kluczowe: international migration, the structure of emigration, Baltic States