Nazewnictwo narzędzi medycznych w czwartej księdze Onomastikonu Polydeukesa

Karolina Szula


Nomenclature of Medical Tools in Book Four of Onomasticon by Julius Pollux

This article aims to discuss the nomenclature of medical tools in Book Four of Onomasticon by Julius Pollux and to assess the usefulness of this work as a source of knowledge in research on the history of medicine. The article contains an original translation that allows for a detailed analysis of the given passage. Onomasticon is an ancient lexicon and the only surviving work by Pollux who lived in the 2nd century CE and represented the Second Sophistic. In Onomasticon, he compiled ancient Greek vocabulary on various topics, including terminology relating to medical tools. The layout of the chapter is not accidental. The author divides the terms into several groups: cutting and mechanical tools, dressings, bloodletting devices and physician’s office equipment. Sometimes he indicates the authors – mainly comedy playwrights – from whom he resourced the chosen vocabulary. The terminology was also drawn from lexicons. The vast majority of phrases mentioned by Pollux was used in a medical context in other literary sources and medical treatises, for example by Hippocrates and Galen. Words that appear in a medical context only in Onomasticon may result from the author’s error or can be new evidence for the studies on ancient medicine.

Słowa kluczowe: Onomastikon, Juliusz Polydeukes, narzędzia medyczne, medycyna starożytna


Aristotle, History of animals: Books VII–X, wyd i tłum. D.M. Balme, Cambridge, MA – London 1991.

Aristophanes, Comoediae, wyd. F.W. Hall, W.M. Geldart, t. 1–2, Oxonii 1953–1956.

Filostrat Starszy, Obrazy, tłum. R. Popowski, Warszawa 2004.

Flawiusz Filostratos, Żywoty sofistów, tłum. M. Szarmach, Toruń 2008.

Galen, Linguarum seu dictionum exoletarum Hippocratis explicatio, [w:] Galeni opera omnia, t. 19, Hildesheim 1965, s. 62–157.

Herodotus, wyd. T.M. Page, E. Capps, W.H.D. Rouse, tłum. A.D. Godley, t. 2–3, London – New York 1928.

Hippocrates, wyd. T.E. Page, E. Capps, W.H.D. Rouse, L.A. Post, E.H. Warmington, tłum. E.T. Withington, t. 2–3, London – Cambridge, MA 1959.

Julii Pollucis Onomasticon decem libri constans, adiecta interpretatio Rudolphi Gwaltheri, Francofurti 1608.

Lucianus, wyd. I. Bekkerus, t. 2, Lipsiae 1853.

Plato, Timaeus, [w:] Timaeus, Critias, Cleitophon, Menexenus, Epistles, wyd. J. Henderson, tłum. R.G. Bury, t. 9, Cambridge, MA 1929.

Pollucis Onomasticon lib. I–V, wyd. E. Bethe, Lipsiae 1900.

Pollucis Onomasticon lib. VI–X, wyd. E. Bethe, Lipsiae 1931.

Suidae Lexicon Graece et Latine, wyd. G. Bernhardy, t. 2, Halis et Brunsvigae 1853.


Literatura przedmiotu

Abramowicz Z., Słownik grecko–polski, t. 1–4, Warszawa 1958–1965.

Avotins I., The Holders of the Chairs of Rhetoric At Athens, „Harvard Studies in Classical Philology” t. 79, 1975, s. 313–324, DOI 10.2307/311142.

Bliquez L.J., The Tools of Asclepius: Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman Times, Leiden – Boston 2015, DOI 10.1163/9789004283596.

Dirckx J.H., Dermatologic Terms in the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux, „American Journal of Dermatopathology” t. 26, 2004, nr 6, s. 511–513, DOI 10.1097/00000372-200412000-00012.

Greek-English Lexicon, red. H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, Oxford 1940.

L’Onomasticon di Giulio Polluce: tra lessicografia e antiquaria, red. C. Bearzot, F.L. Gattinoni, F. Landucci, G. Zecchini, Milano 2007.

König J., Re-reading Pollux: Encyklopaedic Structure and Athletic Culture in Onomasticon Book 3, „The Classical Quarterly” t. 66, nr 1, s. 298–315, DOI 10.1017/S0009838816000331.

Kotlińska-Toma A., Tragedia hellenistyczna, Wrocław 2006.

Koutroumpas D., Dental Terms in Julius Pollux’s The Onomasticon, „Journal of the History of Dentistry” t. 60, 2012, nr 3, s. 120–132.

Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, t. 10, Stuttgart 1918, s. 773–779.

Szarmach M., Druga Sofistyka, [w:] Literatura Grecji starożytnej. T. 2, proza historyczna – krasomówstwo, filozofia i nauka, literatura chrześcijańska, red. H. Podbielski, Lublin 2005 (Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. Źródła i monografie, t. 255), s. 323–346.

Whitmarsh T., The Second Sophistic, New York 2005.