Czy w dzisiejszych czasach proste obserwacje mogą jeszcze znacząco zmieniać postrzeganie podstawowych zjawisk? Przypadek cieczy eutektycznych

Danuta Raj


Can Simple Observations Today Still Significantly Change the Perception of Basic Phenomena? The Case of Eutectic Solvents

The article presents a case study in which a simple, practical observation significantly changed the perception of basic phenomena regarding the mechanism of cell functioning, and thus was able to change the existing theory. This observation drew attention to the fact that the extract obtained from the dry plant substance with the use of pure alcohol, after distilling off the solvent, does not give a dry concentrated extract, and the viscous residue cannot be dried by distillation. This is a phenomenon that practically every phytochemist has encountered since the inception of this field of knowledge. It turned out that the explanation for the described phenomenon is the presence of eutectic solvents. Eutectic solvents are formed by mixing specific solid components, which liquefy without the addition of solvents, thanks to a significant lowering of the melting point of the mixture compared to the melting points of the starting materials. Although more than a hundred years have passed since the description of the above phenomenon, in the field of natural sciences, eutectic solvents have been treated as a curiosity for a long time, while in medical sciences – and more specifically in pharmacy – they were considered an inconvenience causing pharmaceutical incompatibilities. In fact, they are essential for the functioning of cells, enabling plants to develop frost resistance, being responsible for the ability to cryopreserve animal tissues, or allowing the dissolution of substances which are otherwise insoluble inside the cell in either the lipid layer or the aqueous part of the cell juice. The described discovery, made in 2011, allowed for a leap improvement in the understanding of the functioning of living cells.

Słowa kluczowe: ciecze eutektyczne, historia nauki, NADES

Abbott A.P., Boothby D., Capper G., Davies D.L., Rasheed R., Raymond K., Deep Eutectic Solvents Formed between Choline Chloride and Carboxylic Acids: Versatile Alternatives to Ionic Liquids, „Journal of the American Chemical Society” t. 126, 2004, nr 29, s. 9142–9147, DOI 10.1021/ja048266j.s001.

Bergstrom F.W., Sturz H.G., Tracy H.W, The Use of the Fused Eutectic of Sodium Amide and Potassium Amide in Organic Synthesis, „Journal of Organic Chemistry” t. 11, 1946, s. 239–246, DOI 10.1021/jo01173a005.

Binder H., Lexikon der chemischen Elemente, Leipzig 1999.

Castro V.I.B., Craveiro R., Silva J.M., Reis R.L., Paiva A., Duarte A.R.C., Natural Deep Eutectic Systems as Alternative Nontoxic Cryoprotective Agents, „Cryobiology” t. 83, 2018, s. 15–26, DOI 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2018.06.010.

Hornberger K., Li R., Duarte A., Hubel A., Natural Deep Eutectic Systems for Nature-inspired Cryopreservation of Cells, „American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal” 2020, art. 17085, DOI 10.1002/aic.17085.

Dai Y., Jin R., Verpoorte R., Wing L., Yung-Chi Ch., Yongqin X., Jiang X., Liwei Z., Xue-Mei Q., Shilin Ch., Natural Deep Eutectic Characteristics of Honey Improve the Bioactivity and Safety of Traditional Medicines, „Journal of Ethnopharmacology” t. 250, 2020, nr 25, art. 112460, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112460.

Della Porta G.B., Magiae naturalis libri viginti. Ab ipso quidem authore adaucit [...], Amstelodami 1664.

Farmakopea Polska, wyd. XI.

Franklin E., Potassium Ammonosodiate, Potassium Ammonolithiate, Rubidium Ammonosodiate and Rubidium Ammonolithiate, „Journal of Physical Chemistry” t. 23, 1919, nr 1, s. 36–53, DOI 10.1021/j150190a002.

Guthrie F., On Eutexia, „Physical Society” 1884, s. 462–482.

Hae Choi Y., van Spronsen J., Dai Y., Verberne M., Hollmann F., Arends I. W.C.E., Witkamp G.-J., Verpoorte R., Are Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents the Missing Link in Understanding Cellular Metabolism and Physiology, „Plant Physiology” t. 156, 2011, s. 1701–1705, DOI 10.1104/pp.111.178426.

Jachowicz R., Receptura apteczna, Warszawa 2016.

Jensen W.B., Onion’s Fusible Alloy, „Journal of Chemical Education” t. 87, 2010, s. 1050–1051.

Krówczyński L., Zarys technologii postaci leku: podręcznik dla studentów farmacji, Warszawa 1977.

Liu Y., Friesen J.B., McAlpine J.B., Lankin D.C., Chen S.-N., Pauli G.F, Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents: Properties, Applications, and Perspectives, „Journal of Natural Products” t. 81, 2018, s. 679–690, DOI 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00945.s001.

Mathers H.M., Supercooling and Cold Hardiness in Sour Cherry Germplasm: Flower Buds, „Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science” t. 129, 2004, nr 5, s. 675–681, DOI 10.21273/jashs.129.5.0675.

Węglorz J., Naukowy wymiar nowożytnych teorii medycznych i ich postrzeganie przez pryzmat racjonalności badacza jako problem poznawczy, „Klio. Czasopismo Poświęcone Dziejom Polski i Powszechnym” t. 53, 2020, nr 2, s. 3–18, DOI 10.12775/klio.2020.017.

Wikipedia, Eutectic system, [dostęp 24.11.2020].

Wikipedia, Eutektyka, [dostęp 24.11.2020].