Włoski medyk Johannes Baptista Montanus (1489–1551) – jego działalność w Padwie, metody diagnostyczne i terapeutyczne oraz spuścizna naukowa

Anna Odrzywolska

Abstrakt

Italian Physician Johannes Baptista Montanus (1489–1551) – His Activity in Padua, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Methods, and Scientific Legacy

Using the sources written by Johannes Baptista Montanus (1489–1551), by his students, and the existing historiography, the article aims to determine what role this Italian physician played in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, to what extent he is rightly considered the creator of clinical medicine, who were his mentors, and what were the methods of diagnosis and treatment he employed. Montanus was a professor at the University of Padua, and he has earned an ineffaceable place in the history of this university, where medicine was taught at a high level. At the same time, he worked as the head of St. Francis hospital. He was known for combining theoretical and practical knowledge in teaching at university. This method has become a permanent element of the teaching of medicine in Europe. He discussed the patient’s symptoms, then made a diagnosis, and recommended appropriate therapy directly at the patient’s bed, where the so-called consilia were held. This scheme of diagnostic and therapeutic procedure was named after him the ‘Collegium Montani’ and found many supporters among students who made notes while standing by the patient’s bed. The Consilia were later printed, and thus the treatments recommended and used by Montanus can be analyzed. Walenty Sierpiński of Lublin (also known as Valentinus Lublinus, b. 2nd half of the 16th century– d. before 1600) was among a large group of Montanus’s students. His merits include collecting, organizing and then publishing his master’s lectures. Considered to be Montanus’s most important work, Consultationum medicinalium Centuria prima, was published by Walenty of Lublin in Venice in 1554 (ex officina Erasmiana), and it contains one hundred pieces of medical advice given to one hundred patients. A few years later, a continuation of this work (Consultationum medicinalium Centuria secunda, ed. by Johannes Crato, Venice 1559) was published, containing further one hundred recommendations. Montanus was a promoter of physical examination as a method of obtaining knowledge about the patients’ health. He was regarded as a follower of Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna and published critical studies on their treatment methods.

Słowa kluczowe: Johannes Baptista Montanus, Walenty Sierpiński z Lublina, Consultationum medicinalium, historia medycyny
References

Źródła

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da Monte G.B., Consilia medica omnia, que ullibi extant partim antea, partim nunc primum editus. Opera ac diligentia Hieronymi Donzellini, Noribergae 1559.

da Monte G.B., Consilia medica quae ullibi extant nunc primum edita [...] in tres partes distributa ab infinitis mendis repurgata, wyd. Girolamo Donzellini, Basileae 1557.

da Monte G.B., Consultationes medicae de variorum morborum curationibus,wyd. G. Donzellini, Basileae 1557.

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da Monte G.B., Consultationum medicarum opus absolutissimum, wyd. J. Crato, Basileae 1565.

da Monte G.B., Consultationum medicinalium Centuria secunda, wyd. J. Crato, Venetiis 1559.

da Monte G.B., Expectatissimae in primam et secundam partem Aphorismorum Hippocratis lectiones, summa cura collectae: Exactissimaque diligentia recognitae, ad medicinae studiosorum usum, Venetiis 1555.

da Monte G.B., Ioannis Cratonis [...] ad Artem medicam Isagoge. Additae sunt in libros Galeni De elementis, De natura humana, De atrabile, et De temperamentis, & facultatibus naturalibus Periochae Ioannis Baptistae Montani: cum epistola Io. Cratonis, qua rectè Galenum legendi ratio breuiter ostenditur, Venetiis 1560.

da Monte G.B., Opuscula varia ac praeclara: in quibus fere tota medicina explica II, Operum ad medici longe praestantissimi tomus secundus, Basileae 1558.

da Monte G.B., Opuscula varia Io. B.Montani medici [...] cum eiusdem epistola nuncupatoria d. Iulio Alexandrino medico Romanorum regis, wyd. G. Donzellini, Basileae 1557.

da Monte G.B., Petri Pauli Peredae Setabensis, doctoris medici, et apud Valentinos publici medicinae professoris, In Michaelis Ioannis Paschalij methodum curandi, scholia: exercentibus medicinam maximè vtilia. Ad illustrissimum & reuerendissimum dominum Gasparem à Chiroga, archiepiscopum Toletanum, Hispaniarum primatem, & sacrosanctae fidei Catholicae primum cognitorem, Venetiis 1558.

da Monte G.B., Sumaria declaratio eorum, quae ad urinarum cognitionem maxime faciunt, Venetiis 1552.

Montani I.B. [...] De excrementis lib. II a Valentino Lvblino Polono in studiosorum communem utilitatem dati, alter de fecibus, alter de vrinis; quibvs accessit qvaestio eiusdem, quomodo medicamentum aequale, uel inaequale dicatur; Tractatus etiam utilissimus, de morbo Gallico, Venetiis 1554, 1555.

Montani I.B. Consultationes de variorum morborum curationibus, Venetiis 1557.

Montani I.B. De excrementis lib. II a Valentino Lublino Polono in studiosorum communem utilitatem dati, alter de fecibus, alter de vrinis; qvibvs accessit qvaestio eiusdem, quomodo medicamentum aequale, uel inaequale dicatur, Venetiis 1554, 1555.

Montani I.B. Explanationes in II caput libri I Canonis Avicennae, Venetiis 1557.

Montani I.B. Explanationes in secundum caput libri canonis Avicennae, Venetiis 1557.

Montani I.B. In artem paruam Galeni Explanationes, Venetiis 1554, 1556.

Montani I.B. In libros Galeni de arte curandi ad Glauconem explanationes; In tertium [sic] primi Epidemiorum sectionem explanations, Venetiis 1554.

Montani I.B. In nonum librum Rhasis an Mansorem regem Arabum exposition, Venetiis 1554.

Montani I.B. In primam Fen libri primi Canonis Avicennae Explanatio a Valentino Lublino Polono Collecta, Venetiis 1554.

Montani I.B. In quartam fen primi canonis Avicennae, Venetiis 1556.

Montani I.B. Medici Veronensis In artem paruam Galeni Explanationes, A Valentino Lublino Polono editae, Venetiis 1554, Lugduni 1556.

Montani I.B. Medici Veronensis Opvscula. I. De characterismis febrium. II. Quaestio de febre sanguinis. III. De uterinis affectibus, A Valentino Lublino Polono collecta, Venetiis 1554, 1556.

Montani I.B. Opuscula. I De characterismis febrium. II Quaestio de febre sanguinis. III De uterinis affectibus, Venetiis 1554.

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