Status Controversy in Roman and Common Law

Matej Mlkvý

Abstrakt

The aim of the article is to analyse whether villain under the English common law was legally the same category as slave under the Roman law. Perhaps at fi rst sight a remarkable notion, such conclusion could be theoretically justifi ed by the evident reception of Roman law in a major medieval book of authority De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae by Bracton. With regard to the personal status Bracton uses terms found in the Roman law codifi cation of Justinian. To examine the question, the article from the methodological perspective compares the terminology, modes of acquiring and loosing the servile status and the legal capacity of slaves and villains. In its second part the article examines the judicial proceedings subject matter of which is the determination of disputed status libertatis. Since both the Roman and the common law system are systems built on remedies rather than substantive rights, principally the Roman controversia de libertate and the English writ de native habendo as the respective forms of action are examined.

Słowa kluczowe: niewolnictwo, niewolnik, pańszczyzna, villain
References

[Printed sources

Bracton H. de, De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae, ed. S. Thorne, London 1968–1977.

Breton le J., Summa de legibus Anglie que vocatur Bretone, ed. F. Nichols, 1865.

Coke E., Institutes of the Lawes of England, ed. H. Richardson, G. Sayles, “Selden Society”,
vol. 72 (1953), vol. 89 (1972), vol. 99 (1983).

Horn A., Mirror of Justices, ed. W.J. Whittaker, 1893.

Monographs

Bartošek M., Encyklopedie římskéhopráva,Prague 1994.

Bartošek M., Dějiny římskéhopráva ve třech fázích jeho vývoje, Prague 1995.

Güterbock K., Bracton and his Relation to the Roman Law: A Contribution to the History of the Roman Law in the Middle Ages,Philadelphia 1866.

Holdsworth W., A History of English Law, London 1922.

Katz C., Karl Marx on the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, “Theory and Society”1993.

Lenel O., Das Edictum Perpetuum. Ein Versuch zu Dessen Wiederherstellung,Leipzig 1883.

Maschke R., Der Freiheitsprozeßim klassischen Altertum insbesondere der Prozeßum Verginia, Berlin 1888.

Plucknett T., A Concise History of the Common Law,London 1965.

Shanks E., Milsom S., Novae Narrationes, London 1963.

Vinogradoff P., Villainage in England: Essays in English Medieval History, Oxford 1968.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.