Вопросы пунктуации в работе Орфографической комиссии Российской академии наук: лингвистические основы кодификации

Aleksiej Dmitriewicz (Алексей Дмитриевич) Szmelew (Шмелев)

Abstrakt

This paper claims that a clear realization of the general principles of codification of punctuation should precede the work on creating a complete set of rules for Russian punctuation. Disputes among linguists on the qualification of new phenomena in punctuation are clear evidence of the absence of generally accepted criteria for assessing codification of norms. The proposed integrated approach to the codification of punctuation norms combines the results of observation over usage (taking into account the social variation of usage) with results of interviews.
It is necessary to distinguish between analytical and synthetic approaches. Within the analytical approach, a given punctuation mark serves the starting point for further investigation: the researchers seek to provide most accurate account of its functions. Within the synthetic approach, a given syntactic position is the starting point: one should establish whether it requires a punctuation mark and, if so, which one. Rules of punctuation require the synthetic approach while theoretical grounds for them may be better discovered within the analytical approach.
The codification consists of two stages, namely, (i) deciding whether a punctuation mark is appropriate in a given syntactic position, and (ii) stating the corresponding rule. Often the codifiers do not distinguish between those two stages. The Commission for Orthography of the Russian Academy of Sciences analyzes discrepancies between rules for punctuation and usage. In addition, the Commission studies variation of punctuation standards as well as some specific issues of punctuation. These issues will be reflected in a new punctuation code.

Słowa kluczowe: кодификация языковых норм, пунктуация, знак препинания, узус, вариативность
References

Šmelev A.D., 2009, Orfografičeskie normy i orfografičeskie pravila, Russkij âzyk v škole, 9, pp. 70–75.

Šmelev A.D., 2018, Aleksandr Solženicyn i kodifikaciâ russkoj punktuacii, Russkij âzyk v škole, 9, pp. 55–60.

Šmelev A.D., 2019, Peredača cerkovnoslavânskogo teksta sredstvami graždanskoj grafiki: možno li polučit’ ee pri pomoŝi formal’noj procedury?, Komp’ûternaâ lingvistika i intellektual’nye tehnologii: po materialam ežegodnoj meždunarodnoj konferencii «Dialog», 18 (25), pp. 589–599.