Utwór muzealno-wystawowy i zagadnienie jego tożsamości (próba zastosowania metod ontologii i estetyki fenomenologów do muzeologii teoretycznej)

Jerzy Świecimski

Abstrakt

A museum-exhibition work and the issue of its identity

The traditional theory of a museum-exhibition resembles to a certain degree the history of art.

1. – when it is a science concerning facts, e.g. when individual museums, their construction, style, history (e.g. development, rebuilding, decline, etc.), function or their subject matters are described; it also can be 2. – a science concerning types of facts, e.g. when architectural types of museum buildings, types of exhibitions, and especially the types of their functions, subject matter, etc. are described. In the case of the description of various types they are usually classified – that is the type groups, their variants, etc., are defined.

Whereas the theory of museum-exhibition proposed here by the author is related to the theory of the work of art and the theory of the scientific work. Its methodology and cognitive approach derive from both these fields; the only difference is that the theory of museum-exhibition applies the method to the materials which the traditional theory of the work of art or the theory of the scientific work do not deal with – it is the museum-exhibition and the museum exhibit that are these materials. Methodologically, as well as with regard to the scope of cognitive activities, this theory constitutes a new chapter of ontology and aesthetics.

The starting point for the research is the definition of the exhibition work, and more exactly, the answer to the question of what (in the sense of the subject matter) such a work is, and thus when we deal with it, and when the material objects presented as exhibits at a museum-exhibition do not constitute a work yet, being at most, a certain collection of material objects. The settlement of this issue depends on the determination of whether a set of objects being a part of an exhibition is characterised by an individual structure, which makes us perceive the set as a whole, or whether it does not have such a structure. Therefore, this issue resembles a case when we ponder whether a set of some words, e.g. written, constitutes e.g. a clause, a set of clauses, a work, or whether it is merely a set of words without any structural factor binding them.

With regard to such a type of deliberation, a specific classification of museum-exhibition works can be distinguished, because the structures we find in these works are various.

The methodological basis for such a type of deliberation and the tool for analyses are ontology and aesthetics developed within the philosophy of phenomenologists; first of all in the works of one of the key representatives of this philosophy movement, Roman Ingarden.

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