Czy „Portret młodzieńca” w zbiorach wawelskich jest obrazem Jana Lievensa?

Joanna Winiewicz-Wolska

Abstrakt

In 1910, Cracow art historian Professor Jerzy Mycielski bought Portrait of a young man, believing it to be a work by Dutch painter Jan Lievens, at an auction in Amsterdam. After Mycielski’s death in 1929, following his last will, the portrait along with his entire collection was bequeathed to the Wawel Royal Castle. In an article published in 1917 Hans Schneider saw the likeness of the painting to Rafael’s Portrait of a young man, which was then in the Duke Czartoryski collection.
Attribution of the work to Lievens, who until recently was believed to be a student of Rembrandt, has never been questioned previously, although some researchers saw certain similarities between the painting and works by Juriaen Ovens or Govaert Flinck.
The painting represents an “international” style of portrait, formed under the Flemish influence, in particular of Anton van Dyck’s portraits. Thus it should be assumed that the work of van Dyck was an important inspiration and point of reference for the artist who painted the portrait, who might have seen Rafael’s Portrait – the original, its copy or a graphic version. All the more so as van Dyck himself was familiar with Rafael’s work – he saw it during his journey to Italy in 1623 and made a copy in the form of drawing in his sketchbook.
Other than a close a likeness to Rafael’s original and van Dyck’s works, the stylistic analysis of the Wawel Portrait does not enable pinpointing who painted it. Examination using technological means appears to be necessary, considering the fact that Lievens’ paintings were rather carefully examined in view of the recent monographic exhibition at the National Gallery in Washington and the Rembrandthuis in Amsterdam.
The fact that the Wawel painting was included in Lievens’ works displayed at that exhibition seems to suggest that the ideas of those researchers who saw it as a work by Flinck or Ovens should be revisited. Flinck’s portraits based on Flemish models are only of marginal importance and they certainly do have some common features. They do not show any traces of fascination with van Dyck’s painting; neither are there any cues to suggest that he knew Rafael’s Portrait. On the other hand, Juriaen Ovens, who probably visited Italy, could have seen Rafael’s work. He might have come across a copy of it as a collector or as an antiquarian – since he not only had a large collection of paintings but also traded in antiquities. His fascination with van Dyck’s painting and the fact that he was familiar with his oeuvre is confirmed by his numerous sketches of paintings by the Flemish master. The analysis of some details of the Wawel portrait – folds of the young man’s outfit or landscape in the background – also seem to support the assumption that it is his work.

References

Adriani G., Anton van Dyck. Italienisches Skizzenbuch, Wien 1965, s. 71. Crowe J., A., Cavalcaselle G.B., Raphael. Sein Leben und Seine Werke, Leipzig 1883, t.I, s. 222.

Grabski J., Zaginiony “Portret młodzieńca Rafaela ze zbiorów XX. Czartoryskich w Krakowie. Ze studiów nad typologią portretu renesansowego [w:] Rafael i jego spadkobiercy. Portret klasyczny w sztuce nowożytnej Europy. Materiały sesji naukowej, red. S. Dudzik i T.J. Żuchowski (Sztuka i Kultura 4), Toruń 2003, s. 255-257.

Houbraken A., De Groote Schouburg der nederlandsche Konstschilders een Schilderessen, überscht von A.Wurzbach, Osnabrück1970,s. 119.

Jan Lievens. A Dutch Master rediscovered, kat. wystawy, National Gallery of Art w Waszyngtonie (16.10.2008-11.01.2009), Milwaukee Art Museum (7.02-26.04.2009), Rembrandthuis w Amsterdamie (17.05-9.08.2009),oprac. A.K. Wheelock jr. i in. Washington 2008.

Mycielski J., Katalog wystawy obrazów dawnych malarzy włoskich,  holenderskich, niemieckich, francuskich i polskich, Kraków 1911, poz.7.

Passavant D., Raphael d’Urbin et son père Giovanni Santi, Paris 1860, t. I,s. 96-98.

Schlüter-Göttsche G., Die Selbstbildnisse und Bildnisse von Jürgen Ovens (1623-1678), Nordenbilgen. Beiträge zur Kunst und Kulturgeschichte, 1976, t.45, s. 42.

Schneider H., Raffael und Lievens,”Oud Holland”, 1917,no. 35, s. 34-42.

Segeln, was das Zeug halt. Niederländische Gemälde des Goldenen Zeitalters, kat. wystawy, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; Villa Vauban – Musée d’Art de la Ville de Luxemburg, München 2010, s. 76.

Sumowski W., Zur Jan Lievens-Ausstellungin Braunschweig, “Kunstchronik”, 1980, t. 30, s.12.

Sumowski W., Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüller, t. II, Landau 1984, poz. 702.

Sumowski W., Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüller, t. III, Landau 1986, poz. 1298.

Wałek J., Rafaela “Portret młodzieńca” ze zbiorów Czartoryskich, Rozprawy Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie, Seria Nowa, t.I, Kraków 1999.

Wiłkojć E., Badania obrazu Jana Lievensa “Portret młodzieńca”, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego MCCCXX “Opuscula Musealia”, z.19, 2012.

Winiewicz-Wolska J., Malarstwo holenderskie w zbiorach Zamku Królewskiego na Wawelu, Kraków 2001, poz.43 (tu wcześniejsza literatura).

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