Une Préhistoire universelle? Enjeux des Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization (1865) D’edward Burnett Tylor

Maria Beatrice Di Brizio

Abstrakt

Figure de proue de l’anthropologie britannique de l’époque victorienne, Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917) aura également contribué aux sciences de la préhistoire, en théorisant l’universalité de l’âge de pierre dans l’ouvrage intitulé Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization (1865). En abordant ce défi, Tylor propose un excursus comparatiste des connaissances sur l’archéologie, la linguistique et l’ethnographie extra– européennes, tout autant que des données sur la préhistoire, les langues et le folklore européens. Focalisant l’attention sur la première édition des Researches, cette étude analyse la démonstration tylorienne de l’universalité de l’âge de pierre, ses méthodes et enjeux épistémiques, ses notions–clés et données empiriques, ainsi que sa réception à la troisième session du Congrès international d’anthropologie et d’archéologie préhistoriques (1868).


A universal prehistory? The issues of Edward Burnett Tylor’s Researches into the Early
History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization
(1865)

Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917), leading voice of British Victorian anthropology, significantly contributed to the sciences of prehistory by theorising the universality of the Stone Age in his work entitled Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization (1865). In meeting this challenge, Tylor offers a comparative overview of extra–European archaeology, linguistics and ethnography, as well as of data on European prehistory, languages and folklore. Focusing on the first edition of the Researches, this essay analyses Tylor’s generalizations about the Stone Age, their methodological and theoretical issues, their key–notions and data as well as their reception at the third session of the International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology (1868).

Keywords: Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917), Victorian anthropology, prehistory, three–age system.

Słowa kluczowe: Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917), anthropologie britannique de l’époque victorienne, préhistoire, système des trois âges
References

Andersson J. C., Lake Ngami; Or, Explorations and Discoveries, During Four Years Wanderings in the Wilds of South West Africa, Hurst & Blackett, London 1856.

Angas G. F., South Australia Illustrated, Thomas M’Lean, London 1846–1847.

[Anonyme1], Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for February, 1861 in: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 30, 1861, pp. 80–98.

[Anonyme2], Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for December, 1863 in: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 33, 1864, pp. 65–68.

[Anonyme3], Séance du 19 [février] in: Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres 8, 1864, pp. 73–75.

[Anonyme4], New Works, Published from the 1st to the 14th of February in: The Publishers’ Circular and General Record of British and Foreign Literature 28, 1865, pp. 86–89.

[Anonyme5], New Works, Published from the 15th to the 31st of May in: The Publishers’ Circular and General Record of British and Foreign Literature 28, 1865, pp. 282–286.

[Anonyme6], General Monthly Meeting. Monday, December 7, 1863 in: Notices of the Proceedings at the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 4, 1862–1866, pp. 155–158.

Avril J.–T., Dictionnaire provençal–français ... suivi d’un vocabulaire français– provençal, et enrichi dans quelques–uns de ces articles, de notes historiques et curieuses sur certains usages de la Provence, et d’observations relatives à l’histoire naturelle et à l’économie rurale, E. Cartier, Apt 1839.

Backhouse J., A Narrative of a Visit to the Mauritius and South Africa, Hamilton, Adams & Co & J. L. Linney, London & York 1844.

Barker–Webb P. & Berthelot S., Histoire naturelle des îles Canaries, Tome Premier. Première Partie, contenant l’ethnographie et les annales de la conquête, Béthune, Paris 1842.

Blanckaert C., Monogénisme et polygénisme en France de Buffon à P. Broca (1749–1880), Thèse de doctorat, Université de Paris 1 Panthéon – Sorbonne 1981.

Blanckaert C., Monogénisme et polygénisme in: Dictionnaire du darwinisme et de l’évolution, vol. 2, (éd.) P. Tort, PUF, Paris 1996, pp. 3021–3037.

Blanckaert C., Nommer le préhistorique au XIXe siècle. Linguistique et transferts lexicaux in: Organon 49, 2017, pp. 57–103.

Bleek W. H. I., Reynard the Fox in South Africa; Or, Hottentot Fables and Tales. Chiefly Translated from Original Manuscripts in the Library of His Excellency Sir George Grey, K. C. B., Trübner & Co, London 1864.

Boodt A. B. de, Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia. Quam olim edidit Anselmus Boetius de Boot ... Postea Adrianus Tollius, Lugd.–Bat., M. D., recensuit; figuris melioribus, & Commentariis pluribus illustravit ... Tertia edition longe purgatissima ... [1609], Ex Officina Ioannis Maire, Lugduni Batavorum 1647.

Bory de Saint–Vincent J.–B.–G.–M., Essais sur les Isles Fortunées et l’antique Atlantide, ou Précis de l’Histoire générale de l’Archipel des Canaries, Baudoin, Paris an XI [1803].

Brasseur de Bourbourg C.–E., Histoire des nations civilisées du Mexique et de l’Amérique–Centrale, durant les siècles antérieurs à Christophe Colomb, écrite sur des documents originaux et entièrement inédits, puisés aux anciennes archives des indigènes, A. Bertrand, Paris 1857–1859.

Burrow J. W., Evolution and Society: A Study in Victorian Social Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1966.

Burton R. F., The Lake Regions of Central Africa: A Picture of Exploration, Longman, Green, Longman & Roberts, London 1860.

Busk G., Exhibition of Stone Implements from the Cape of Good Hope in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green & Co, London 1869, pp. 69–71.

[Cartier J.], The Second Voyage of Iaques Cartier by the Grand Bay vp the Riuer of Canada to Hochelaga, Anno 1535 in: The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiqves and Discoueries of the English Nation, vol. 3, (éd.) R. Hakluyt, Imprinted by G. Bishop, R. Newberie & R. Barker, London 1600, pp. 212–232.

Casalis E., The Basutos: Or, TwentyThree Years in South Africa, J. Nisbet & Co., London 1861.

[Castrén M. A.], M. Alexander Castrén’s Vorlesungen über die finnische Mythologie, Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg 1853.

Cataldi M., Comparatisme ethnographique et datation de l’art rupestre (1860–1880) in: L’avant et l’ailleurs: comparatisme, ethnologie et préhistoire. Préface de Jean–Michel Geneste, (éd.) P. Grosos & al., Les éditions du Cerf, Paris 2020, pp. 19–36.

Chapman W. R., Toward an Institutional History of Archaeology: British Archaeologists and Allied Interests in the 1860s in: Tracing Archaeology’s Past: The Historiography of Archaeology, (éd.) A. Christenson, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, IL 1989, pp. 151–162.

Cook J., In Pursuit of the Unity of the Human Race: Henry Christy and Mexico in: Turquoise in Mexico and North America: Science, Conservation, Culture and Collections, (éd.) J. C. H. King, M. Carocci, C. Cartwright & C. McEwan, Archetype Publications, London 2012, pp. 177–182.

Christy H., On the Prehistoric Cave–Dwellers of Southern France (Read June 21st, 1864) in: Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London 3, 1865, pp. 362–372.

Dawkins W. B., Wookey Hole Hyena Den in: Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological & Natural History Society (Part 2) 11, 1861–1862, pp. 197–219.

Desse J. & Desse–Berset N., Les Ichthyophages du Makran (Bélouchistan, Pakistan) in: Paléorient 31, 1/2005, pp. 86–96.

Di Brizio M. B., Dégénération des sauvages et critique du lamarckisme au Royaume–Uni: la Natural History of Society in the Barbarous and Civilized State (1840) de William Cooke Taylor in: Organon 48, 2016, pp. 73–111.

Di Brizio M. B., Un ethnologue en chambre? Vie et oeuvre d’Edward Burnett Tylor in: Bérose. Encyclopédie internationale des histoires de l’anthropologie, Paris 2017 [en ligne: https://www.berose.fr/article1127.html?lang=fr, consulté le 6/06/2022].

Di Brizio M. B., Histoire du concept de couvade: Edward B. Tylor et l’ethnologie de l’époque victorienne, L’Harmattan, Paris 2021.

Diodore de Sicile, Bibliothèque Historique. Livre I, trad. Y. Vernière, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1993.

Du Noyer G. V., On the Classification of Bronze Celts in: Archaeological  Journal 4, 1847, pp. 1–6.

Earl G. W., The Native Races of the Indian Archipelago. Papuans, H. Baillière, London 1853.

Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, trad. D. A. De Sola & M. J. Raphall, [2ème éd.] Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, London 1845.

Erman A., Reise um die Erde durch Nord–Asien und die beiden Oceane in den Jahren 1828, 1829, und 1830, vol. 3: Die Ochozker Küste, das Ochozker Meer und die Reise auf Kamtschatka im Jahre 1829, G. Reimer, Berlin 1848.

Evans J., Flint Implements in the Drift; Being an Account of Their Discovery on the Continent and in England. Communicated to the Society of Antiquaries, J. B. Nichols & Sons, London 1860.

Evans J., Flint Implements in the Drift; Being an Account of Further Discoveries on the Continent and in England. Communicated to the Society of Antiquaries, J. B. Nichols & Sons, London 1862.

Evans J. & al., Discussion in: Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London 2, 1863, pp. 124–129.

Evans J. & al., Discussion on the Above, and on the Use of Iron in Africa in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green & Co, London 1869, pp. 71–79.

Ewbank T., Life in Brazil; or, A Journal of a Visit to the Land of the Cocoa and the Palm. With an Appendix, Containing Illustrations of South American Arts in Recently Discovered Implements and Products of Domestic Industry, and Works in Stone, Pottery, Gold, Silver, Bronze, &c., Harper & Brothers, New York 1856.

Eyre E. J., Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia, and Overland from Adelaide to King George’s Sound, In the Years 1840–1; Sent by the Colonists of South Australia, T. & W. Boone, London 1845.

Féraud L.–C., Monuments dits celtiques dans la province de Constantine in: Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de la province de Constantine 1, 1863, pp. 214–234.

Féraud L.–C., Monuments dits celtiques dans la province de Constantine in: Recueil des notices et mémoires de la Société archéologique de la province de Constantine 2, 1864, pp. 108–132.

Foote R. B., On Quartzite Implements of Palaeolithic Types from the Laterite Formation of the East Coast of Southern India in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green & Co, London 1869, pp. 224–238.

Franks A. W., Notes on the Discovery of Stone Implements in Japan in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green & Co, London 1869, pp. 258–267.

Freire–Marreco B. W., A Bibliography of Edward Burnett Tylor. From 1861 to 1907 in: Anthropological Essays Presented to Edward Burnett Tylor, in Honour of His 75th Birthday Oct. 2 1907, (éd.) N. W. Thomas, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1907, pp. 375–409.

George W. H., Tylor, Alfred (1824–1884) in: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (éd.) H. C. G. Matthew & B. Harrison, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004 [en ligne, https://doi-org.bnf.idm.oclc.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/27944, consulté le 31/10/2022].

Gillespie N. C., The Duke of Argyll, Evolutionary Anthropology, and the Art of Scientific Controversy in: Isis 68, 1977, pp. 40–54.

Goguet A.–Y., De l’origine des loix, des arts, et des sciences; et de leurs progrès chez les anciens peuples, vol. 3, Desaint et Saillant, Paris 1758.

Grayson D. K., The Establishment of Human Antiquity, Academic Press, New York 1983.

Gran–Aymerich E., Saulcy (Caignart de Saulcy), Louis Félicien Félix Joseph (Lille, 1807–Paris, 1880) in: Dictionnaire des orientalistes de langue française, (éd.) F. Pouillon, IISMM–Karthala, Paris 2008, p. 865.

Grey G., Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in North–West and Western Australia, During the Years 1837, 38, and 39, T. & W. Boone, London 1841.

Grimm J., Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, vol. 2, Weidmannschen Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1848.

Grimm J., Deutsche Mythologie, vol. 1, [3ème éd.] Dieterichsche Buchhandlung, Göttingen 1854.

Grosier J.–B., De la Chine, ou Description générale de cet empire, rédigée d’après les mémoires de la mission de Pé–Kin, vol. 3, [3ème éd.] Pillet & Arthus Bertrand, Paris 1818.

Grüber J. W., Brixham Cave and the Antiquity of Man in: Readings in the History of Anthropology, (éd.) R. Darnell, Harper & Row, New York 1974, pp. 380–406.

Haklvytvs Posthumus or Pvrchas His Pilgrimes. Contayning a History of the World, in Sea Voyages, & Lande–Trauells, (éd.) S. Purchas, H. Fetherston, London 1625.

Harris M., The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1968.

Harrison W. J. & Van Riper A. B., Christy, Henry (1810–1865) in: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, in Association with the British Academy: From the Earliest Times to the Year 2000, vol. 11, (éd.) H. C. G. Matthew & B. Harrison, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004, pp. 562–563.

Hawkesworth J., An Account Of The Voyages Undertaken By The Order Of His Present Majesty For Making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, And successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, And Captain Cook, In the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour: Drawn Up From the Journals which were kept by the several Commanders, And from the Papers of Joseph Banks, Printed for W. Strahan & T. Cadell, London 1773.

Hérodote, Histoires. Livre VII. Polymnie, trad. Ph.–E. Legrand, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 2003.

Hérodote, L’Égypte. Histoires II, trad. Ph.–E. Legrand, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 2010.

Hurel A., L’utopie d’une science préhistorique sans frontières: l’Institut de paléontologie humaine du Prince Albert 1er de Monaco et la première guerre mondiale in: L’oeuvre de paix du Prince Albert 1er de Monaco. Actes du 136e Congrès national des sociétés historiques et scientifiques, «Faire la guerre, faire la paix», Perpignan, 2011, (éd.) A. Hurel & al., Éditions du CTHS, Paris 2013, pp. 53–64.

Hurel A., La possibilité d’un Paléolithique chinois. La première «Mission paléontologique française en Chine» (1923–1924) in: Organon 47, 2015, pp. 111–136.

Hurel A. & Coye N., Introduction: 1859–2009. Aller au–delà d’une celebration in: Dans l’épaisseur du temps. Archéologues et géologues inventent la préhistoire, (éd.) A. Hurel & N. Coye, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris 2011, pp. 7–37.

Hurel A. & Vialet A., Les Congrès internationaux d’anthropologie et d’archéologie préhistoriques (1866–1912) et la question de l’éveil d’une conscience patrimoniale collective (fouilles, gisements, collections) in: Archaeologists Without Boundaries: Towards a History of International Archaeological Congresses (1866–2006), (éd.) M. Babes & M.–A. Kaeser, Archaeopress, BAR Publishing, Oxford 2009, pp. 33–39.

Kaeser M.–A., L’internationalisation de la préhistoire, une manoeuvre tactique? Les conséquences épistémologiques de la fondation des Congrès internationaux d’anthropologie et d’archéologie préhistoriques in: Les politiques de l’anthropologie, (éd.) C. Blanckaert, L’Harmattan, Paris 2001, pp. 201–230.

Kaeser M.–A., Establishing Prehistory: The Foundation of the International Congress (1865/1866) in: Archaeologists Without Boundaries: Towards a History of International Archaeological Congresses (1866–2006), (éd.) M. Babes & M.–A. Kaeser, BAR Publishing, Oxford 2009, pp. 1–3.

Kaeser M.–A., Une science universelle ou éminemment nationale? Les congrès internationaux de préhistoire (1866–1912) in: Revue germanique internationale 12, 2010, pp. 17–31.

[K’ang–Hi], Observations de Physique et d’Histoire naturelle de l’Empereur Kang–Hi in: Mémoires concernant l’histoire, les sciences, les arts, les moeurs, les usages , &c. des Chinois, par les missionnaires de Pe–kin, vol. 4, Nion l’aîné, Paris 1779, pp. 452–483.

Kingsborough E. K., Antiquities of Mexico: Comprising Fac–Similes of Ancient Mexican Paintings and Hieroglyphics [...] Together with the Monuments of New Spain, by M. Dupaix: with Their Respective Scales of Measurement and Accompanying Descriptions. The Whole Illustrated by Many Valuable Inedited Manuscripts, vol. 1, Published by R. Havell & Colnaghi, Son & Co, London 1831.

Klemm G. F., Allgemeine Cultur–Geschichte der Menschheit, B. G. Teubner, Leipzig 1843–1852.

Klemm G. F., Allgemeine Culturwissenschaft. Die materiellen Grundlagen menschlicher Cultur. Werkzeuge und Waffen, Romberg, Leipzig 1854.

Kracheninnikov S. P., Histoire et description du Kamchatka, trad. M. de Saint–Pré, M. M. Rey, Amsterdam 1770.

La sacra Bibbia. Edizione ufficiale della C.E.I., (éd.) Conferenza episcopale italiana, CEI–UECI, Roma 1989.

Lartet E., New Researches Respecting the Co–Existence of Man with the Great Fossil Mammals, Regarded as Characteristic of the Latest Geological Period in: Natural History Review 9, 1862, pp. 53–71.

Lartet E. & Christy H., Cavernes du Périgord. Objets gravés et sculptés des temps pré–historiques dans l’Europe Occidentale. Extrait de la «Revue archéologique», Didier et Cie, Paris 1864.

Lartet E. & Christy H., Reliquiæ Aquitanicæ; Being Contributions to the Archaeology and Palaeontology of Périgord and the Adjoining Provinces of Southern France, Williams & Norgate, London 1875.

[Leemans C.], On the Stone Wedges of Java, and Similar Ancient Objects of Stone, Discovered in Borneo. Translated, with Some Omissions, from a Memoir in the Journal of the Royal Institute of Holland, by Dr. Conrad Leemans, Curator of the Museum of Antiquities at Leyden in: Archaeological Journal 11, 1854, pp. 116–123.

Leopold J., Culture in Comparative and Evolutionary Perspective: E. B. Tylor and the Making of “Primitive Culture”, D. Reimer, Berlin 1980.

Livingstone D. N., Adam’s Ancestors: Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2008.

Longpérier H. de, Notice des antiquités assyriennes, babyloniennes, perses, hébraïques, exposées dans les galeries du Musée du Louvre, [3ème éd.] Vinchon, Paris 1854.

Lubbock J., The Kjökkenmöddings: Recent Geologico–Archaeological Researches in Denmark in: Natural History Review 8, 1861, pp. 489–504.

Lubbock J., On the Ancient Lake–Habitations of Switzerland in: Notices of the Proceedings at the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 4, 1862–1866, pp. 29–40.

Lubbock J., Pre–Historic Times, as illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages, Williams & Norgate, London 1865, [2ème éd.] 1869.

Lubbock J., President’s Address in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green and Co., London 1869, pp. 1–10.

Lubbock J. & al., Discussion in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green & Co, London 1869, pp. 238–239.

[Ludolf H.], Jobi Lvdolfi alias Leut–Holf dicti Historia Aethiopica, sive Brevis & succincta descriptio regni Habessinorvm, J. D. Zunner, Francofurti ad Moenum 1681.

Lyell C., On the occurrence of works of human art in post–Pliocene deposits in: Report of the twenty–ninth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Held at Aberdeen in September 1859, Notices and Abstracts, J. Murray, London 1860, pp. 93–95.

Lyell C., The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man, with Remarks on Theories of the Origin of Species by Variation, [2ème éd.], J. Murray, London 1863.

[Maïmonides M.], The Code of Maimonides: Book Two, The Book of Love, trad. M. Keller, Yale University Press, New Haven, CA & London 2004.

Manias C., Race, Science and the Nation: Reconstructing the Ancient Past in Britain, France and Germany, Routledge, New York & London 2013.

Mémoire N., Alexis de Gourgue (1801–1885) in: Paléo 1/1990, pp. 15–18.

Morlot A., Études géologico–archéologiques en Danemark et en Suisse in: Bulletin de la Société vaudoise des sciences naturelles 6, 1860, pp. 263–329.

Müller F. M., Lectures on the Science of Language, Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in April, May & June, 1861, Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, London 1861.

Müller F. M., Lectures on the Science of Language. Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in February, March, April & May, 1863, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, London 1864.

Murray T., Tasmania and the Constitution of “the Dawn of Humanity” in: Antiquity 66, 1992, 730–743.

Petherick J., Egypt, the Soudan and Central Africa, with Explorations from Khartoum on the White Nile to the Regions of the Equator, Being Sketches to from Sixteen Years’ Travel, W. Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London 1861.

[Pline l’Ancien], Histoire naturelle de Pline, trad. É. Littré, vol. 2, Firmin Didot Frères et Cie, Paris 1865.

Pline l’Ancien, Histoire naturelle. Livre XII, trad. A. Ernout, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1949.

Prestwich J., Theoretical Considerations on the Conditions under which the (Drift) Deposits containing the Remains of Extinct Mammalia and Flint Implements were accumulated, and on their Geological Age in: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 154, 1864, pp. 247–309.

Prestwich J., On the Quaternary Flint Implements of Abbeville, Amiens, Hoxne, &c., their Geological Position and History in: Notices of the Proceedings at the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 4, 1862–1866, pp. 213–222.

Prichard J. C., Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, [3ème éd.], Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper – J. & A. Arch, London 1836–1847.

Ravenstein E. G., The Russians on the Amur; its Discovery, Conquest, and Colonisation, Trübner & Co, London 1861.

Richardson J., The Polar Regions, A. & C. Black, Edinburgh 1861.

[Rømer L. F.], Ludewig Ferdinand Rømers Nachrichten von der Küste Guinea, mit einer Vorrede D. Erich Pontoppidan, aus dem Dänischen ubersetzt, [sans trad.], F. C. Bei, Kopenhagen & Leipzig 1769.

Roth H. L., The Aborigines of Tasmania, Kegan Paul, London 1890.

Rowley–Conwy P., From Genesis to Prehistory: The Archaeological Three–Age System and its Contested Reception in Denmark, Britain, and Ireland, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007.

Sarytschew G., Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the North–East of Siberia, the Frozen Ocean, and the North–East Sea, [sans trad.], Printed for R. Phillips, London 1806.

Schoolcraft H. R., Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States; Collected and Prepared under the Direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs per Act of Congress of March 3rd, 1847, vol. 23, Lippincott, Grambo & Co, Philadelphia 1851–1857.

Sera–Shriar E., The Making of British Anthropology, 1813–1871, Pickering & Chatto, London 2013.

Siebold P. F. B. von, Von den Waffen, Waffenübungen und der Kriegskunst in: P. F. B. Von Siebold, Nippon. Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan und dessen Neben– und Schutzländern: Jezo mit den südlichen Kurilen, Krafto, Kooraï und den Liukiu–Inseln, nach japanischen und europaïschen Schriften und eigenen Beobachtungen, vol. 2, bei dem Verfasser, Leyden 1852, pp. 1–52.

Soar K., Edward Tylor, Archaeologist? The Archaeological Foundations of “Mr. Tylor’s Science” in: Edward Burnett Tylor, Religion and Culture, (éd.) P. F. Tremlett, G. Harvey & L. T. Sutherland, Bloomsbury Academic, London 2017, pp. 141–162.

Squier E. G., Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York. Comprising the Results of the Original Surveys and Explorations, By the Smithsonian Institution, Washington 1851.

Squier E. G. & Davis E. H., Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley: Comprising the Extensive Original Surveys and Explorations, By the Smithsonian Institution, Washington 1848.

Steinhauer C. L., Catalogue of a Collection of Ancient and Modern Stone Implements, and of Other Weapons, Tools and Utensils of the Aborigines of Various Countries, in the Possession of Henry Christy, F.G.S., F.L.S., &c., Taylor and Francis, London 1862.

Stocking G. W., Jr., Matthew Arnold, E. B. Tylor, and the Uses of Invention in: G. W. Stocking, Jr., Race, Culture and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology, The Free Press, New York 1968, pp. 69–90 & pp. 325–328.

Stocking G. W., Jr., Tylor, Edward Burnett in: International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 16, (éd.) D. L. Sills, The Macmillan Company & The Free Press, New York 1968, pp. 170–177.

Stocking G. W., Jr., From Chronology to Ethnology: James Cowles Prichard and British Anthropology, 1800–1850 in: J. C. Prichard, Researches into the Physical History of Man, (éd.) G. W. Stocking, Jr., The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1973, pp. ix–cx.

Stocking G. W., Jr., Victorian Anthropology, The Free Press, New York 1991.

[Strabon], Géographie de Strabon, trad. A. Tardieu, Hachette, Paris 1867–1890.

Tacite, La Germanie in: OEuvres de C. C. Tacite, trad. C. L. F. Panckoucke, vol. 6, C. L. F. Panckoucke, Paris 1833, pp. 3–70.

Tarantini M., La nascita della paletnologia in Italia (1860–1877), All’Insegna del Giglio, Borgo S. Lorenzo 2012.

Taylor R., The First Stone and the Last Tasmanian: The Colonial Correspondence of Edward Burnett Tylor and Henry Ling Roth in: Oceania 86, 2016, pp. 320–343.

[Tite–Live], OEuvres de Tite–Live (Histoire Romaine), trad. D. Nisard, Firmin Didot Frères, Fils et Cie, Paris 1869.

Torquemada J. de, II.A parte de los veynte y vn libros rituales y Monarchia Yndiana, Por Matthias Clauijo, En Seuilla 1615.

Trautmann T. R., The Revolution in Ethnological Time in: Man 27, 1992, pp. 379–397.

Troyon F., Habitations lacustres des temps anciens et modernes, Georges Bridel Éd., Lausanne 1860.

Tylor A., On the Discovery of Supposed Human Remains in the Tool–Bearing Drift of Moulin–Quignon in: Anthropological Review 1, 1863, pp. 166–168.

Tylor E. B., Anahuac: Or Mexico and the Mexicans, Ancient and Modern, Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, London 1861.

Tylor E. B., Wild Men and Beast–Children in: The Anthropological Review 1, 1863, pp. 21–32.

Tylor E. B., Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, J. Murray, London 1865.

Tylor E. B., The Religion of Savages in: Fortnightly Review 6, 1866, pp. 71–86.

Tylor E. B., The Condition of Prehistoric Races, as Inferred from Observation of Modern Tribes in: International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology: Transactions of the Third Session which Opened at Norwich on the 20th August and Closed in London on the 28th August 1868, Longmans, Green and Co., London 1869, pp. 11–25.

Tylor E. B., Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom, vol. 1, J. Murray, London 1871.

Tylor E. B., Anthropology: An Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization, Macmillan and Co, London 1881.  

Tylor E. B., Preface in: H. L. Roth, The Aborigines of Tasmania, Kegan Paul, London 1890, pp. v–viii.

[Tylor E. B.], Discovery of a Celtic Kitchen–refuse–heap at Normanby in Cleveland in: Gentleman’s Magazine 16, 1864, pp. 162–167.

Van Reybrouck D., From Primitives to Primates. A History of Ethnographic and Primatological Analogies in the Study of Prehistory, Sidestone Press, Leiden 2012.

Van Riper A. B., Men among the Mammoths: Victorian Science and the Discovery of the Human Prehistory, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1993.

Vaux W. S. W., [communication sans titre, séance du 19 janvier 1860] in: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London 1, 1859–1861, pp. 64–69.

Vetus Testamentum Graece juxta LXX interpretes, (éd.) F. Field, Excudebat Jacobus Wright, Oxonii 1859.

Weber A. F., Die neuern Forschungen über das alte Indien in: Indische Skizzen. Vier bisher in Zeitschriften zerstreute Vorträge und Abhandlungen, F. Dümmler, Berlin 1857, pp. 1–38.

Whately R., On the Origin of Civilisation in: R. Whately, Miscellaneous Lectures and Reviews, Parker, Son, and Bourn, London 1861, pp. 26–59.

Wied–Neuwied M. A. P., Reise nach Brasilien, in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817, H. L. Brönner, Frankfurt am Mein 1820–1821.

Wilde W. R. W., A Descriptive Catalogue of the Antiquities of Stone, Earthen, and Vegetable Materials in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, M. H. Gill, Dublin 1857.

Wilkinson J. G., A Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians, J. Murray, London 1854.

Wilson D., Synopsis of the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Printed for the Society, Edinburgh 1849.

Wilson D., The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, Sutherland & Knox, Edinburgh 1851.

Wilson D., Prehistoric Man: Researches into the Origin of Civilisation in the Old and the New World, Macmillan & Co, Cambridge & London 1862.