Stupid Animals in Ancient Natural Histories

Lucyna Kostuch

Abstrakt
Over the centuries since antiquity, nature writers have evaluated different animal species. One criterion for such an evaluation has been intellect. At the lowest point on the scale of intellectual abilities was stupidity. Ancient authors often attributed inadequate intellect to various animal species by using pejorative expressions. The aim of this study is to determine which animal species Greek and Roman writers considered as inferior in the hierarchy of intellectual abilities, and why these species were chosen in particular. Furthermore, the paper attempts to verify the evaluations formulated in antiquity in light of contemporary observations of nature.
Słowa kluczowe: ancient animals, stupidity, classical study, natural history, modern research.
References
A Series of Texts Relating to Aesop or Ascribed to Him, (ed.) B. E. Perry, University of Illinois Press, Urbana 2007.
 
Ackerman J., The Genius of Birds, Penguin Books, New York 2016.
 
Aelian, On the Nature of Animals, ed. & transl. A. F. Scholfield, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1958–1959.
 
Ahonen M., Mental Disorder in Ancient Philosophy, Springer, Heidelberg 2014.
 
Alexandridis A., Wild M. & Winkler–Horaček L. (eds.), Mensch und Tier in der Antike: Grenzziehung und Grenzüberschreitung, Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2008.
 
Allen C. & Bekoff M., Species of Mind. The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1997.
 
Anderson R. C. & Mather J. A., It’s All in the Cues: Octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) Learn to Open Jars in: Ferrantia 59, 2010, pp. 8–13.
 
Anderson R. C., Mather J. A., Monette M. Q. & Zimsen S. R. M., Octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) Recognize Individual Humans in: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 13, 2010, pp. 261–272.
 
Anonymous Latin Book of Physiognomy, ed. & transl. I. Repath in: Seeing the Face, Seeing the Soul: Polemon’s Physiognomy from Classical Antiquity to Medieval Islam, (ed.) S. Swain, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007, pp. 549–635.
 
Anonymous Life of Aesop, ed. & transl. W. Hansen, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 2008.
 
Antigonus of Carystus, Rerum mirabilium collectio, (ed.) O. Musso, Bibliopolis, Napoli 1986.
 
Aristophanes, Peace, ed. & transl. J. Henderson, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1998.
 
Aristophanes, Plutus, ed. & transl. B. B. Rogers, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1986.
 
Aristotle, Generation of Animals, ed. & transl. A. L. Peck, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1942.
 
Aristotle, History of Animals, Books I–III & IV–VI, ed. & transl. A. L. Peck, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1965 & 1970.
 
Aristotle, History of Animals, Books VII–X, ed. & transl. D. M. Balme, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1991.
 
Aristotle, On the Soul, ed. & transl. W. S. Hett, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1957.
 
Aristotle, Parts of Animals, ed. & transl. A. L. Peck, E. S. Forster, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1937.
 
Aristotle, Politics, ed. & transl. H. Rackham, Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA 1932.
 
Arnott W. G., Birds in the Ancient World from A to Z, Routledge, London & New York 2007.
 
Arrian, Indica, ed. & transl. P. A. Brunt, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1983.
 
Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, ed. & transl. D. Harris–McCoy, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012.
 
Athenaeus, The Learned Banqueters, vol. 1–8, ed. & transl. S. D. Olson, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2006–2012.
 
Auersperg A. M. I., Gajdon G. K. & Bayern von A. M. P., A New Approach to Comparing Problem Solving, Flexibility and Innovation in: Communicative & Integrative Biology 5, 2012, pp. 140–145.
 
Balme D. M., Introduction in: Aristotle: History of Animals, book 7–10, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1991, pp. 1–30.
 
Bekoff M., Animals Matter. Biologist Explains Why We Should Treat Animals with Compassion and Respect, Shambhala, Boston 2000.
 
Bekoff M. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, vol. 1–3, Greenwood Press, Westport 2004.
 
Bodson L., The Beginning of Entomology in Ancient Greece in: The Classical Outlook 61, 1983, pp. 3–6.
 
Bodson L., Some of Aristotle’s Writings about Birds Behavior and Issues Still Current in Comparative Psychology in: International Journal of Comparative Psychology 9, 1996, pp. 26–41.
 
Bodson L., Zoological Knowledge in Ancient Greece and Rome in: The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life, (ed.) G. L. Campbell, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, pp. 556–578.
 
Calder L., Cruelty and Sentimentality: Greek Attitudes to Animals, 600–300 BC, Archaeopress, London 2011.
 
Campbell G. L., Origins of Life and Origins of Species in: The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life, (ed.) G. L. Campbell, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, pp. 243–246.
 
Campbell G. L., Zoogony and Evolution in Plato’s Timaeus, the Presocratics, Lucretius and Darwin in: Reason and Necessity: Essays on Plato’s Timaeus, (ed.) M. R. Wright, Duckworth, London 2000, pp. 145–180.
 
Catullus, Poems, ed. & transl. F. W. Cornish, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1913.
 
Cicero, On the Ends of Good and Evil, ed. & transl. H. Rackham, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1931.
 
Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods, ed. & transl. H. Rackham, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1933.
 
Clark S. R. L., Ancient Mediterranean Philosophy, Bloomsbury Academic, London 2013.
 
Clearchus, Die Schule des Aristoteles. Texte und Kommentar, vol. 3, (ed.) F. Wehrli, B. Schwabe, Basel 1948.
 
Cole E. B., Theophrastus and Aristotle on Animal Intelligence in: Theophrastus. His Psychological, Doxographical, and Scientific Writings, (eds.) W. W. Fortenbaugh & D. Gutas, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J. 1992, pp. 44–62.
 
Coles A., Animal and Childhood Cognition in Aristotle’s Biology and the scala naturae in: Aristotelische Biologie. Intentionen, Methoden, Ergebnisse, (eds.) W. Kullmann & S. Föllinger, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997, pp. 287–323.
 
Columella, On Agriculture, vol. 1–3, ed. & transl. H. B. Ash, E. S. Forster & E. Heffner, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1941–1955.
 
Darwin Ch., Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Round the World, under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N., [2nd ed.] John Murray, London 1845.
 
Darwin Ch., The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms, with Observations on their Habits [1881], University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1985.
 
Detienne M. & Vernant J.–P., Cunning Intelligence in Greek Culture and Society, transl. J. Lloyd, Harvester Press & Humanities Press, Sussex & New Jersey 1978.
 
Diels H., Kranz W., Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, vol. 1–3, [6th ed.] Weidmann, Berlin 1951–1952 [= DK].
 
Dierauer U., Raison ou instinct? Le développement de la zoopsychologie antique in: L’animal dans l’antiquité, (eds.) B. Cassin & J.–L. Labarrière, Vrin, Paris 1997, pp. 3–29.
 
Dierauer U., Tier und Mensch im Denken der Antike. Studien zur Tierpsychologie, Anthropologie und Ethik, Grüner, Amsterdam 1977.
 
Dio Chrysostom, Discourses, vol. 1–5, ed. & transl. J. W. Cohoon, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1932–1951.
 
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, vol. 1–12, C. H. Oldfather, C. L. Sherman, C. Bradford Welles, Russel M. Geer & F. R. Walton, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1933–1967.
 
Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, ed. & transl. R. D. Hicks, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1925.
 
Dionysius, On Birds, (ed.) A. Garzya, Teubner, Leipzig 1963.
 
Dyroff A., Die Tierpsychologie des Plutarchos von Chaironeia, Bonitas–Bauer, Würzburg 1897.
 
Emery N. J., Cognitive Ornithology: The Evolution of Avian Intelligence in: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 361, 2006, pp. 23–43.
 
Emery N., Bird Brain: An Exploration of Avian Intelligence, Princeton University Press, Princeton & Oxford 2016.
 
Enache C., The Intelligence Typology in Hippocrates’ De victu I 35 in: Wiener Studien 128, 2015, pp. 37–48.
 
Evans E. C., Physiognomics in the Ancient World, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1969.
 
Fögen T., Plinius der Ältere zwischen Tradition und Innovation: Zur Ideologie der Naturalis Historia in: Tradition und Erneuerung: Mediale Strategien in der Zeit der Flavier, (eds.) N. Kramer & C. Reitz, De Gruyter, Berlin 2010, pp. 41–61.
 
Fortenbaugh W. W., Aristotle: Animals, Emotion, and Moral Virtue in: Arethusa 4, 1971, pp. 137–165.
 
Fortenbaugh W. W., Theophrastus of Eresus. Sources for His Life, Writings, Thought and Influence. Commentary Volume 8: Sources on Rhetoric and Poetics (Texts 666–713), Brill, Leiden & Boston 2005.
 
Fortenbaugh W. W., Huby P. M., Sharples R. W. & Gutas D. (eds.), Theophrastus of Eresus. Sources for His Life, Writings, Thought and Influence. Part One: Life, Writings, Various Reports, Logic, Physics, Metaphysics, Theology, Mathematics, Brill, Leiden 1992.
 
French R., Ancient Natural History, Routledge, London & New York 1994.
 
Galen, In Hippocratis De natura hominis commentaria III, (ed.) J. Mewaldt in: Corpus Medicorum Græcorum (= CMG), vol. V 9.1, Teubner, Leipzig & Berlin 1914.
 
Galen, Method of Medicine, ed. & transl. I. Johnston & G. H. R. Horsley, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2011.
 
Galen, On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body, ed. & transl. M. T. May, Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1968.
 
Gilhus I. S., Animals, Gods and Humans. Changing Attitudes to Animals in Greek, Roman and Early Christian Ideas, Routledge, London & New York 2006.
 
Glare P. G. W., Oxford Latin Dictionary, [2nd ed.] Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012 [= OLD].
 
Godfrey–Smith P., Other Minds: The Octopus, the Sea and the Deep Origins of Consciousness, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York 2016.
 
González F. J. N., Vidal J. J., Jurado J. M. L., McLean A. K. & Bermejo J. V. D., Dumb or Smart Asses? Donkey’s (Equus asinus) Cognitive Capabilities Share the Heritability and Variation Patterns of Human’s (Homo sapiens) Cognitive Capabilities in: Journal of Veterinary Behavior 33, 2019, pp. 63–74.
 
Gregory J., Donkeys and the Equine Hierarchy in Archaic Greek Literature in: Classical Journal 102, 2007, pp. 193–212.
 
Griffith M., Horsepower and Donkeywork: Equids and the Ancient Greek Imagination in: Classical Philology 101, 3/2006, pp. 185–246 & 101, 4/2006, pp. 307–358.
 
Hesiod, Shield, ed. & transl. G. W. Most, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2007.
 
Hippocrates, Regimen 1, ed. & transl. W. H. S. Jones, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1931.
 
Horapollo, Hieroglyphics, transl. G. Boas, Pantheon Books, New York 1950.
 
Immelmann K. & C. Beer, A Dictionary of Ethology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1989.
 
Janse M., Aischrology in: Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, vol. 1: A–F, (ed.) G. K. Giannakis, Brill, Leiden & Boston 2014, pp. 76–86.
 
Jouanna J., Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen. Selected Papers, transl. N. Allies, Brill, Leiden & Boston 2012.
 
Kendrick K. M., Sheep Senses, Social Cognition and Capacity for Consciousness in: The Welfare of Sheep, (ed.) C. Dwyer, Springer, Dordrecht 2008, pp. 135–157.
 
Kendrick K. M., Costa da A. P., Hinton M. R., Leigh A. E. & Peirce J. W., Sheep don’t forget a face. The discovery of a remarkable memory shows that sheep are not so stupid after all in: Nature 414, 2001, pp. 165–166.
 
Kitchell Jr. K. F., Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z, Routledge, London & New York 2014.
 
Kitchell K. F., ‘Animal Literacy’ and the Greeks: Philoctetes the Hedgehog and Dolon the Weasel in: Interactions between Animals and Human in Graeco–Roman Antiquity, (eds.) T. Fögen & E. Thomas, De Gruyter, Berlin & Boston 2017, pp. 183–204.
 
Körner O., Die Homerische Tierwelt, Bergmann, München 1930.
 
Koster S., Die Invektive in der griechischen und römischen Literatur, Anton Hain, Meisenheim am Glan 1980.
 
Kruska D., Mammalian Domestication and its Effect on Brain Structure and Behavior in: Intelligence and Evolutionary Biology, (eds.) H. J. Jerison & I. Jerison, Springer, New York 1988, pp. 211–250.
 
Labarrière J.–L., De la phronesis animale in: Biologie, logique et métaphysique chez Aristote, (eds.) D. Deveraux & P. Pellegrin, Éditions du CNRS, Paris 1990, pp. 406–428.
 
Labarrière J.–L., Raison humaine et intelligence animale dans la philosophie grecque in: Terrains 34, 2000, pp. 107–122.
 
Leas Ch., Silent Witnesses: Deaf–Mutes in Graeco–Roman Antiquity in: Classical World 104, 2011, pp. 451–473.
 
Lennox J. G., Is Reason Natural? Aristotle’s Zoology of Rational Animals in: Aristotle’s Anthropology, (eds.) G. Keil & N. Kreft, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2019, pp. 99–117.
 
Leroi A. M., The Lagoon: How Aristotle Invented Science, Penguin Books, New York 2014.
 
Lewis S. & Llewellyn–Jones L., The Culture of Animals in Antiquity: A Sourcebook with Commentaries, Routledge, New York 2018.
 
Liddell H. G, Scott R. & Jones H. S., A Greek–English Lexicon, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1968 [= LSJ].
 
Lloyd G. E. R., Aristotle on the Natural Sociability, Skill and Intelligence of Animals in: Politeia in Greek and Roman Philosophy, (eds.) V. Harte & M. Lane, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013, pp. 277–293.
 
Lorenz G., Tiere im Leben der alten Kulturen. Schriftlose Kulturen, Alter Orient, Ägypten, Griechenland und Rom, Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck 2000.
 
Lorenz K., On Aggression [1963], transl. M. Latzke, Methuen, London 1966.
 
Lorenz K., King Solomon’s Ring. New Light on Animal Ways, Routledge, [1949], transl. M. K. Wilson, London & New York 2002.
 
Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, ed. & transl. W. H. D. Rouse & M. F. Smith, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1924.
 
Marino L. & Colvin Ch. M., Thinking Pigs: A Comparative Review of Cognition, Emotion, and Personality in Sus domesticus in: International Journal of Comparative Psychology 28, 2015 (Article ID 23859).
 
Mather J. A., Anderson R. C. & Wood J. B., Octopus: The Ocean’s Intelligent Invertebrate, Timber Press, Portland 2010.
 
McDermott W. C., Ape in Antiquity, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1938.
 
Mitchell R. W., Thompson N. S. & Miles H. L. (eds.), Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals, State University of New York Press, New York 1997.
 
Mynott J., Birds in the Ancient World. Winged Words, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2018.
 
Nawroth Ch., Brett J. M. & McElligott A. G., Goats Display Audience–Dependent Human–Directed Gazing Behaviour in a Problem–Solving Task in: Biology Letters 12, 2016 (Article ID 20160283).
 
Nemesianus, Fragments on bird–catching in: Minor Latin Poets, ed. & transl. J. W. Duff & A. M. Duff, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1935.
 
Newmyer S. T., Speaking of Beasts: The Stoics and Plutarch on Animal Reason and the Modern Case Against Animals in: Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 63, 1999, pp. 99–110.
 
Newmyer S. T., Tool Use in Animals: Ancient and Modern Insights and Moral Consequences in: Scholia 14, 2005, pp. 3–17.
 
Newmyer S. T., Animals, Rights, and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics, Routledge, New York & London 2006.
 
Newmyer S. T., Being the One and Becoming the Other. Animals in Ancient Philosophical Schools in: The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life, (ed.) G. L. Campbell, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, pp. 507–534.
 
Newmyer S. T., The Animal and the Human in Ancient and Modern Thought: The ‘Man Alone of Animals’ Concept, Routledge, New York & London 2017.
 
Nicander, The Poems and Poetical Fragments, ed. & transl. A. S. F. Gow & A. F. Scholfield, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1953.
 
Nicol Ch., Behaviour as an Indicator of Animal Welfare in: Management and Welfare of Farm Animals. The UFAW Farm Handbook, 5th edition, (ed.) J. Webster, Wiley–Blackwell, Chichester 2011, pp. 31–67.
 
Opelt I., Die lateinischen Schimpfwörter und verwandte sprachliche Erscheinungen, Winter, Heidelberg 1965.
 
Oppian, Fishing, ed. & transl. A. W. Mair, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1928.
 
Oppian, The Chase, ed. & transl. A. W. Mair, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1928.
 
Osborne C., Dumb Beasts and Dead Philosophers, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007.
 
Ovid, Metamorphoses, ed. & transl. F. J. Miller & G. P. Goold, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1916.
 
Pausanias, Description of Greece, vol. 1–5, ed. & transl. W. H. S. Jones, H. A. Ormerod & R. E. Wycherley, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1918–1935.
 
Pellegrin P., Aristotle’s Classification of Animals. Biology and the Conceptual Unity of the Aristotelian Corpus, University of California Press, Berkeley 1986.
 
Philo, De Animalibus. The Armenian Text with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary, (ed.) A. Terian, Scholars Press, Chico 1981.
 
Philo, On Abraham, ed. & transl. F. H. Colson, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1935.
 
Philo, On the Posterity and Exile of Cain, ed. & transl. F. H. Colson & G. H. Whitaker, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1929.
 
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, ed. and transl. F. C. Conybeare, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1912.
 
Photius, Bibliotheca, vol. 1–8, ed. and transl. R. Henry, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1959–1991.
 
Pinotti P., Gli animali in Platone: metafore a tassonomie in: Filosofi e animali nel mondo antico, (eds.) S. Castignone & G. Lanata, Edizioni ETS, Pisa 1999, pp. 101–121.
 
Plato, Republic, ed. & transl. Ch. Emlyn–Jones & W. Preddy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2013.
 
Plato, Theaetetus, ed. & transl. H. N. Fowler, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1921.
 
Plato, Timaeus, ed. & transl. R. G. Bury, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1929.
 
Pliny, Natural History, vol. 1–10, ed. & transl. H. Rackham, W. H. S. Jones & D. E. Eichholz, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1938–1962.
 
Plutarch, On the Failure of Oracles in: Plutarch, Moralia, vol. 5, ed. & transl. F. C. Babbitt, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1936.
 
Plutarch, Table–Talk in: Plutarch, Moralia, vol. 8, ed. & transl. P. A. Clement & H. B. Hoffleit, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1969.
 
Plutarch, Whether Land or Sea Animals are Cleverer in: Plutarch, Moralia, vol. 12, ed. & transl. H. Cherniss & W. C. Hembold, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1957.
 
Popa T., Zoology in: A Companion to Science, Technology, and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome, vol. 1, (ed.) G. L. Irby, Wiley–Blackwell, Oxford & New York 2016, pp. 281–295.
 
Porphyry, On Abstinence from Killing Animals, transl. G. Clark, Bloomsbury Publishing, London 2000.
 
Posidonius, The Fragments, (ed.) L. Edelstein & I. G. Kidd, [2nd ed.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1989.
 
Prada L., Oneirocritica Aegyptiaca: Artemidorus of Daldis, Egypt, and the Contemporary Oneirocritic Literature in Egyptian in: Artemidor von Daldis und die antike Traumdeutung. Texte – Kontexte – Lektüren, (ed.) G. Weber, De Gruyter, Berlin & Boston 2015, pp. 298–299.
 
Ps.–Aristotle, Physiognomics in: Ps.–Aristotle, Minor Works, ed. & transl. W. S. Hett, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1936.
 
Ps.–Aristotle, Problems, ed. & transl. R. Mayhew & D. C. Mirhady, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2011.
 
Rahn H., Das Tier in der Homerischen Dichtung in: Studium Generale 20, 1967, pp. 90–105.
 
Roccatagliata E., A History of Ancient Psychiatry, Greenwood Press, New York 1986.
 
Roller D. W., The Boiotian Pig in: Essays in the Topography, History and Culture of Boiotia, (ed.) A. Schachter, Dept. of Classics, McGill University, Montreal 1990, pp. 139–144.
 
Saint Ambrose, Hexameron, transl. J. J. Savage, The Fathers of the Church, vol. 42, Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D. C. 1961.
 
Sassi M. M., La scienza dell’uomo nella Grecia antica, Bollati – Boringhieri, Torino 1988.
 
Seneca, Letters, vol. 1–3, ed. & transl. R. M. Gummere, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1917–1925.
 
Solinus, Wunder der Welt. Collectanea rerum mirabilium, (ed.) K. Brodersen, WBG, Darmstadt 2014.
 
Sorabji R., Animal Minds and Human Morals. The Origins of the Western Debate, Cornell University Press, Ithaca & New York 1993.
 
Strabo, Geography, transl. H. C. Hamilton & W. Falconer, George Bell and Sons, London 1854.
 
Synesius, Eulogy of Baldness in: The Essays and Hymns of Synesius of Cyrene, transl. A. Fitzgerald, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1930.
 
The Physiognomy of Adamantius the Sophist, ed. & transl. I. Repath in: Seeing the Face, Seeing the Soul: Polemon’s Physiognomy from Classical Antiquity to Medieval Islam, (ed.) S. Swain, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007, pp. 487–547.
 
The Classical Tradition, (eds). A. Grafton & al., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA & London 2010.
 
Theophrastus, De Sensibus in: Doxographi Græci, (ed.) H. Diels, [4th ed.] De Gruyter, Berlin 1965.
 
Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, (ed.) A. Nauck, [2nd ed.] Teubner, Leipzig 1889 [suppl. B. Snell, Olms, Hildesheim 1964 [= TrGF].
 
Tzetzes, On Lycophron, ed. & transl. A. W. Mair & G. R. Mair, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1921.
 
Varro, On Agriculture, ed. & transl. W. D. Hooper & H. B. Ash, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1934.
 
Vitruvius, On Architecture, vol. 1–2, ed. & transl. F. Granger, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1931–1934.
 
Waal de F. B. M., Anthropomorphism and Anthropodenial: Consistency in Our Thinking about Humans and Other Animals in: Philosophical Topics 27, 1999, pp. 255–280.
 
Waal de F., Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?, Granta Books, New York & London 2016.
 
Wynne C. D. L., Animal Cognition: The Mental Lives of Animals, Palgrave Publishers, New York 2001.
 
Xenophon, Memoirs of Socrates, ed. & transl. E. C. Marchant, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1923.