Is there a decline in ecoterrorism?

Krzysztof Izak

Abstrakt

The purpose of the article is to briefly characterize ecoterrorism, which is based on a specific ideology. Some of the content proclaimed by its promoters might merit support were it not for their overly dehumanizing rhetoric, and especially the practice motivated by it. The phenomenon of ecoterrorism, or environmental terrorism, is associated with the use of violence by extremist pro-environment groups and radicalized individuals. Ecoterrorism is divided into pro-environmental terrorism and pro-animalism. Environmental terrorism can also be divided into terrorism by environmentalists and terrorism by animal rights activists. The greatest development of ecoterrorism has occurred in the United States. Animal Liberation Front, ALF was the most dangerous pro-environmental organization, while the group with the most members was Earth First, EF! Violence by eco-terrorists has occurred in many countries on our continent, most notably in the United Kingdom. The ideology of ecocentrism, which motivates the activities of many groups in the West, has penetrated Poland, but in our country it has not had much influence on the activities of organized groups of environmentalists and individuals. On the other hand, incidents of violence were recorded in a series of events directed against specific companies and institutions that threatened the environment. The research shows that there is a slow but steady decline in the number of ecoterrorism incidents worldwide. It is too early to predict its decline, but there is certainly evidence of declining violent activity. Several circumstances contribute to the downscaling of aggressive environmental activities. Above all, there has been an increase in the environmental awareness of societies and governments. A large impact on the decrease in the number of ecoterrorist events is also due to the tightening of legislation, as well as the activities of environmental organizations.

Słowa kluczowe: animalists, ecocentrism, ecology, ecotage, ecoterrorism
References

Czaja J., Terroryzm polityczny we Włoszech, in: Terroryzm polityczny, J. Muszyński (ed.), Warszawa 1981, p. 206-231.

Kowalska S., Ekoterroryzm - rozważania w kontekście bezpieczeństwa i zasady zrównoważonego rozwoju. Wybrane regulacje prawa międzynarodowego, in: Prawa człowieka a ochrona środowiska. Wspólne wartości i wyzwania, B. Gronowska et al. (ed.), Toruń 2018, p. 222-245.

Kuipers D., Operation Bite Back: Rod Coronado’s War to Save American Wilderness, London 2009.

Kushner H.W., Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Thousand Oaks 2003.

Machniak A., Radykalizm i ekstremizm nowych ruchów społecznych na przykładzie Frontu Wyzwolenia Zwierząt, „Bezpieczeństwo. Teoria i Praktyka” 2018, No. 1, p. 259-269.

Michaud T.A., Ekoterror a ekoideologia, in: Terroryzm - dawniej i dziś, P. Jaroszyński et al. (ed.), Lublin 2010, p. 73-85.

Patterson Ch., Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust, New York 2002.

Posłuszna E., Ekstremizm ekologiczny, źródła - przejawy - perspektywy, Warszawa 2012.

Tomasiewicz J., Przemoc w ruchu ekologicznym: od obywatelskiego nieposłuszeństwa do terroryzmu (przypadek Earth Liberation Front), „Krakowskie Studia Międzynarodowe” 2004, No. 1, p. 187-209.

 

Internet sources

Bondaroff T.P., Bitter Green: An Examination of the Strategy of Ecotage, 2009, p. 72-78, https://www.academia.edu/238985/Bitter_Green_The_Strategy_of_Ecotage [accessed: 12 II 2021].

Bondaroff T.P., Throwing a Wrench into Things: The Strategy of Radical Enviromentalism, „Journal of Military and Strategic Studies” Summer 2008, No. 4, p. 6-7, https://www.academia.edu/192381/THROWING_A_WRENCH_INTO_THINGS_THE_STRATEGY_OF_
RADICAL_ENVIRONMENTALISM?email_work_card=title [accessed: 16 II 2021].

Cheda J., Ekoterroryzm jako współczesne zagrożenie bezpieczeństwa ekologicznego na świecie i w Polsce, „Karpacki Przegląd Naukowy” 2014, No. 3, http://ktnio.pl/Home/PokazPdf?nazwaPliku=KPN%20kwartalnik%2FKarpacki%20Przegl%C4%85d%20Naukowy%20Nr%203(11)-2014.pdf [accessed: 30 I 2021].

DeBruin C., Right-Wing Extremism in the United States, Williams Honors College Akron University 2019, https://ideaexchange.uakron.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2024&-context=honors_research_projects [accessed: 22 II 2021].

Doherty B., Sea Shepherd says it will abandon pursuit of Japanese whalers, „The Guardian”, 29 VII 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/29/sea-shepherd-says-it-will-abandon-pursuit-of-japanese-whalers [accessed: 25 II 2018].

Eco-terrorism Specifically Examining Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty („SHAC”), Hearing before the Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate, October 26, 2005, p. 5-8, https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-109shrg39521/pdf/CHRG-109shrg39521.pdf [accessed: 12 II 2021].

http://www.animalperson.net/ronnie-lee-on-the-alf/ [accessed: 12 II 2021].

https://www.britannica.com/topic/ecoterrorism [accessed: 24 XII 2021].

http://www.naiaonline.org/articles/article/quotes-from-the-leaders-of-the-animal-rights-movement#sthash.q4A1 wR4T.dpbs [accessed: 12 II 2021].

http:/www.wegetarianie.pl/forum/ogolnie/2614/ [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://bagna.pl/mokre-tematy/194-dolina-rospudy-historia-i-tlo-konfliktu [accessed: 14 II 2021].

https://biznesalert.pl/ekoterroryzm-ekologia-klimat-srodowisko/ [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://furcommission.com/in-their-own-words-the-animal-liberation-front-alf-has-this-to-say/ [accessed:12 II 2021].

https://miastojestnasze.org/ dziwny-przypadek-lukasza-warzechy/ [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://naukaoklimacie.pl/aktualnosci/warzecha-od-rzeczy-w-do-rzeczy-369 [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://pl.qaz.wiki/wiki/International_Fund_for_Animal_Welfare [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Warrior [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://pracownia.org.pl/pracownia-aktualnosci/244-w-obronie-wielorybow-na-swiecie-zwyciestwo-sea-shepherd [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://prawy.pl/56196-ekoterroryzm-nowotwor-zzerajacy-polske/ [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://publicystyka.ngo.pl/klimatyczne-fiasko-premiera-morawieckiego-greenpeace-pyta-serio [accessed:14 XII 2019].

https://swiatrolnika.info/ekoterroryzm-haracze-porwania-i-szantaz [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://tvn24.pl/magazyn-tvn24/byly-bloki-bedzie-las-do-poniedzialku-ma-was-tu-nie-byc,167,2880 [accessed: 30 VII 2018].

https://web.archive.org/web/20171208174807/http://www.seashepherd.org/news-and-commentary/news/sea-shepherd-launches-new-anti-poaching-vessel-mv-sharpie.html [accessed: 8 XII 2017].

https://www.consumerfreedom.com/2004/01/2339-peta-and-terrorism-the-real-deal/ [accessed: 12 II 2021].

https://www.defence24.pl/japonia-rozpoczyna-wojnez-wielorybami-niedziela [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://www.ekoterroryzm.pl/index.php/przypadki-ekoterroryzmu/18-dzien-bez-futra-ekoterrorysci-uderzaja-w-polska-gospodarke [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://www.ekoterroryzm.pl/index.php/przypadki-ekoterroryzmu/23-ekoterroryzm-wsrod-najwiekszych-zagrozen-2018-roku [accessed: 22 II 2021].

https://www.energetyka24.com/ekoterroryzm-w-polsce-tajemniczy-zielony-front-podpalil-harwestery-na-dolnym-slasku [accessed: 11 IV 2019].

https://www.facebook.com/AnimalLiberationPressOffic/posts/animal-rights-militiathe-animal-rights-militia-arm-is-a-banner-used-by-animal-ri/2278788152207848/ [accessed: 17 II 2021].

https://www.gov.pl/web/klimat/konwencja-waszyngtonska-cites [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://www.greenpeace.org/international/story/48966/irving-dorothy-stowe-greenpeace-history-founders-mentors/ [accessed: 24 I 2022].

https://www.mojanorwegia.pl/aktualnosci/norwegia-ulatwi-polowy-wielorybow-resort-idziena-reke-wielorybnikom-17514.html [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://www.money.pl/gospodarka/budowa-s16-jak-walka-o-doline-rospudy-ministerstwo-infrastruktury-obawia-sie-ostrych-protestow-6381246601533569a.html [accessed: 14 II 2021].

https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt0600_582b [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://www.polsatnews.pl/wiadomosc/2019-02-26/zatrzymano-podejrzanego-o-wysadzenie-jesienia-ubieglego-roku-budynku-w-bielsku-bialej/ [accessed: 26 II 2019].

https://www.polsatnews.pl/wiadomosc/2019-06-22/twarz-premiera-morawieckiego-z-napisem-wstyd-wyswietlona-na- elektrowni/ [accessed: 14 II 2021].

https://www.polsatnews.pl/wiadomosc/2021-07-19/bielsko-biala-sad-wyda-wyrok-w-sprawie-wysadzenia-bloku-mateuszowi-h-grozi-10-lat-wiezienia/ [accessed: 20 VII 2021]

https://www.postbulletin.com/letter----animal-rights-movement-wallows-in-human/article_e932b1a3-54ac-526a-a086-be4c7deaa75e.html [accessed: 12 II 2021].

https://www.radiozet.pl/Co-gdzie-kiedy-jak/piatka-dla-zwierzat-projekt-ustawy-tresc-co-to-kiedy-glosowanie [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://www.rp.pl/biznes/art1054421-greenpeace-blokuje-rafinerie-biopaliwa-we-francji-z-powodu-surowca [accessed: 30 X 2019].

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-environment/brazil-authorizes-national-security-force-to-fight-deforestation-idUKKBN2041XI [accessed: 18 II 2021].

https://www.supersummary.com/the-monkey-wrench-gang/summary/ [accessed: 23 XII 2021].

https://www.tygodnikprzeglad.pl/prawdziwy-szwindel-klimatyczny/ [accessed: 15 II 2021].

https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2001/oct/7/20011007-025834-9663r/ [accessed: 7 XI 2001].

Leksykon ekologii i ochrony środowiska, https://www.ekologia.pl/wiedza/slowniki/ leksykon-ekologii-i-ochrony-srodowiska/ekoterroryzm [accessed: 30 I 2021].

Loadenthal M., „Eco-Terrorism”: An Incident-Driven History of Attack (1973-2010), „Journal for the Study of Radicalism” 2017, vol. 11, No. 2, https://www.academia.edu/332 63882/_2017_Eco_Terrorism_An_Incident_Driven_History_of_Attack_1973_2010_?email_work_card=thumbnail [accessed: 22 II 2021].

Mączkowski K., Ekoterroryzm to głupota, „Dzikie Życie” 2011, No. 2/200, https://dzikiezycie.pl/archiwum/2011/ luty-2011/ekoterroryzm-to-glupota [accessed: 30 I 2021].

Michaud T.A., Ekoterroryzm: kulisy bycia „zielonym”, https://3obieg.pl/ekoterroryzm-kulisy-bycia-zielonym-prof-thomas-michaud/ [accessed: 19 IX 2012].

Parson S., Understanding the Ideology of the Eart Liberation Front, „Green Theory & Praxis: The Journal of Ecopedagogy” 2008, No. 2, p. 52, https://www.academia.edu/518248/Understanding_the_Ideology_of_the_Earth_Liberation_Front?email_work_card=title [accessed: 11 II 2021].

Pellow D.N., Eco-terrorism, in: Keywords for Environmental Studies, J. Adamson, W.A. Gleason, D. Pellow (ed.), New York 2016, https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.18 574/9780814760741-029/html [accessed: 24 XII 2021].

Posłuszna E., A Prognostic View on the Ideological Determinants of Violence in the Radical Ecological Movement, „Sustainability” 2020, t. 12 nr 16, bez numeracji, https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/16/6536/html [accessed: 18 II 2021].

„Resistance Magazine”, wiosna 2010, vol. 2, No. 1, http://www.arissamediagroup.org/book/ resistance-magazine-2/ [accessed: 24 I 2022].

Sobczyk M., Gaja - Żyjąca planeta, „Dzikie Życie” 2002, No. 5/95, https://dzikiezycie.pl/archiwum/2002/maj-2002/gaja-zyjaca-planeta [accessed: 30 I 2021].

Spadaro P.A., Climate Change, Environmental Terrorism, Eco-Terrorism and Emerging Threats, „Journal of Strategic Security” 2020, vol. 13, No. 4, p. 58-80, https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1863&context=jss [accessed: 17 XI 2021].

US Department of Homeland Security, An Overview of Bombing and Arson Attacks by Environmental and Animal Rights Extremists in the United States, 1995-2010, May 2013, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/ default/files/publications/OPSR_TP_TEVUS_Bombing-Arson-Attacks_Environmental-Animal%20Rights-Extremists_1309-508.pdf [accessed: 18 II 2021].

Yang Sue-Ming, Jen I-Chin, An Evaluation of Displacement and Diffusion Effects on Eco-Terrorist Activities After Police Interventions, „Journal of Quantitative Criminology” 2018, vol. 34, No. 4, p. 1103-1123, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320213750_An_Evaluation_of_Displacement_and_Diffusion_
Effects_on_Eco-Terrorist_Activities_After_Police_Interventions [accessed: 18 II 2021].