Charakterystyki krainy Sukhāvatī w kontekście przemian buddyjskiej kosmologii i soteriologii. Część druga

Robert Szuksztul

Abstrakt

Tekst podejmuje analizę Sukhāvatī – świata („pola buddy”) Amitabhy, określanego również jako Czysta Kraina. Pewne jej cechy – przynajmniej na pozór – odbiegają od standardowych wyobrażeń na temat buddyzmu. Skłaniało to niektórych badaczy do poszukiwań bezpośrednich zapożyczeń z innych religii i kultur, co miało wyjaśnić źródło nazwy, położenie i cechy tej krainy. Charakterystyki te można jednak bardziej przekonująco wyjaśnić, analizując proces ewolucji samego buddyzmu, co stanowi główne zadanie tej pracy.

Tekst został podzielony na dwie części. W części pierwszej przedstawiono założenie o wewnątrzbuddyjskich źródłach pochodzenia Sukhāvatī wraz z uzasadnieniem tego wyboru. Następnie omówiono ewolucję buddyjskiej wizji kosmologicznej, która ostatecznie doprowadziła do koncepcji pól buddów, w tym Sukhāvatī. Prezentowana tutaj część druga została poświęcona analizie charakterystyk tej krainy w świetle Krótszej i Dłuższej sutry Sukhāvatīvyūha, w kontekście innych tekstów buddyjskich, aby wykazać, że Sukhāvatī skupia w sobie następujące wątki buddyjskie: (a) w warstwie wizualnej przedstawienie raju, (b) w wymiarze niematerialnym aktywność nirwany, (c) w aspekcie ścieżki łatwe praktyki charakteryzujące warunki odrodzenia dla niższych niebios.

ABSTRACT

Characteristics of the land of Sukhāvatī in the context of changes in Buddhist cosmology and soteriology. Part two

The text analyses Sukhāvatī – Amitābha’s purified buddha field, also known as the Pure Land. The vision of Sukhāvatī became immensely popular in Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism, and in East Asia it started a new Buddhist tradition. Some of its features – at least on the surface – differ from standard ideas about what Buddhism is. The descriptions of the activity of the Buddha Amitābha, who brings salvation to all beings, by enabling them to be reborn and live a blissful and virtually endless existence in his paradise land of Sukhāvatī, where achieving the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice is quick and easy, led to attempts to show the structural similarities of this tradition with, for example, Christianity. There were also attempts to prove direct borrowings from other religions and cultures, which was supposed to explain the source of the name, location and characteristics of this land. These characteristics, however, can be more convincingly explained by analysing the process of evolution of Buddhism itself, which is the main focus of this work.

Due to its volume, the text is divided into two parts. The first part defends the assumption about the intra-Buddhist origins of Sukhāvatī and the justification for this choice in the context of various other theories about the origin of that land. Then the evolution of the Buddhist cosmological vision that eventually led to the concept of purified buddha fields, including Sukhāvatī, will be discussed. The second part is devoted to an analysis of the characteristics of this land in the light of the Short and Long Sukhāvatīvyūha sutras, and in the context of other Buddhist texts, to show that Sukhāvatī combines the following Buddhist themes: (a) in the visual layer, the presentation of a paradise, an ideal land, that lacks any existential ills, (b) in the non-material aspect, the activity of nirvāṇa, (c) in the dimension of the Buddhist path, the easy practices that characterise the conditions of rebirth for the lower heavens. 

Słowa kluczowe: Sukhāvatī, Czysta Kraina, kosmologia, soteriologia, Amitābha, buddyzm, Pure Land, cosmology, soteriology, Buddhism
References

Anuruddha, i Bodhi. 2000. A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma the Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Ācariya Anuruddha. Seattle: BPS Pariyatti Edition, http://site.ebrary.com/id/10612932. Dostęp: 28.06.2021.

Anuruddha, i Nārada. 1987. A Manual of Abhidhamma Being Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Bhadanta Anuruddhacariya, wyd 5. Repr. [der Ausg. Kuala Lumpur, 1987]. Taipei: Corporate Body of the Buddha.

Blum, Mark Laurence (red.). 2013. The Nirvana Sutra: (Mahāparinirvāṇa-Sūtra). BDK English Tripiṭaka Series. Berkeley, CA: Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai America, Inc.

Collins, Steven. 1998. Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali Imaginaire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fujita, Kōtatsu. 1996a. „Pure Land Buddhism in India”. W The Pure Land Tradition: History and Development, red. James Harlan Foard, Michael Solomon, Richard K. Payne, tłum. Taitetsu Unno. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series.

———. 1996b. „The Origin of the Pure Land”. The Eastern Buddhist 29 (1): 33–51.

Gethin, Rupert. 2006. „Mythology as Meditation: From the Mahāsudassana Sutta to the Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra”. The Journal of the Pali Text Society 28: 63–112.

———. (red.). 2008. Sayings of the Buddha: A Selection of Suttas from the Pali Nikāyas. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford‒New York: Oxford University Press.

Gómez, Luis O. (red.) 1996. Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of Measureless Light: Sanskrit and Chinese Versions of the Sukhāvatīvyūha Sutras. Studies in the Buddhist traditions. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Harrison, Paul M. 1978. „Buddhânusmṛti in the Pratyutpanna-Buddha-Saṃmukhāvasthita Samādhi-Sūtra”. Journal of Indian Philosophy 6: 35–57.

Kumārajīva i Burton Watson (red.). 1999. The Vimalakirti Sutra: From the Chinese Version by Kumarajiva. 1. Indian ed. Buddhist Tradition Series 42. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Kloetzli, Randy. 1983. Buddhist Cosmology: From Single World System to Pure Land: Science and Theology in the Images of Motion and Light. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Muller, A. Charles (red.). b.d. „Digital Dictionary of Buddhism”, http://buddhism-dict.net/ddb. Dostęp: 28.06.2021.

Nakamura, Hajime. 1980. Indian Buddhism: A Survey with Bibliographical Notes. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.

Nattier, Jan. 2001. „The Realm of Akṣobhya: A Missing Piece in the History of Pure Land Buddhism”. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 23 (1): 71–102.

———. 2003. „The Indian Roots of Pure Land Buddhism: Insights from the Oldest Chinese Versions of the Larger Sukhāvatīvyūha”. Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, 179–201.

Schopen, Gregory. 1977. „Sukhāvatī as a generalized religious goal in sanskrit mahāyāna sūtra literature”. Indo-Iranian Journal 19 (3): 177–210.

Silk, Johnathan A. 1997. „The Composition of the Guan Wuliangshoufo-Jing: Some Buddhist and Jaina Parallels to Its Narrative Frame”. Journal of Indian Philosophy 25 (2): 181–256.

Szuksztul, Robert. 2015. „Possible Roots of the Pure Land Buddhist Notion of Practice in Light of Some Early Buddhist Sources”. The Polish Journal of the Arts and Culture. 16 (4): 155–77.

„The SAT Daizōkyō Text Database”. 2018, https://21dzk.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/SAT2018/master30.php?lang=en. Dostęp: 28.06.2021.

Thurman, Robert A.F. (red.). 1976. The Holy Teaching of Vimalakīrti: A Mahāyāna Scripture. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Tsukamoto, Zenryū. 1985. A History of Early Chinese Buddhism: From Its Introduction to the Death of Hui-Yüan. 1st English ed. Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International. Distributed in the U.S. by Kodansha International/USA Ltd. through Harper & Row.

Williams, Paul, i Henryk Smagacz. 2001. Buddyzm Mahajana. Kraków: Wydawnictwo A.

Yamada, Meiji. 1984. The Sutra of Contemplation on the Buddha of Immeasurable Life as Expounded by Sakyamuni Buddha = [Bussetsu Kan Muryojubutsu Kyo]. Kyoto, Japan: Ryukoku University.