Poszukiwanie dobrego życia na globalnym Południu. Migranci w nieformalnym sektorze turystycznym w Indiach

Natalia Bloch


Searching for a Good Life in the Global South. Migrants In the Informal Tourism Sector in India

Migration motivated by searching for a good life is usually associated with the privileged citizens of the Global North. This is even more apparent if we look at the intersections of migration and tourism. These are usually ‘expatriates’ from the Global North in the Global South who fulfill their quest running lifestyle oriented small tourism businesses. Meanwhile, migrants who originate from the Global South are imagined as homo economicus, motivated predominantly by better earning opportunities. I challenge this assumption by scrutinizing the informal tourism sector at the Hampi World Heritage site in India. The majority of small entrepreneurs in this sector are seasonal migrants. When asked about the reasons for choosing Hampi, they point at the category of shanti (i.e. tranquility), which they use to counter capitalist notions of profitability. I seek to answer the question of how ‘tranquility’ is defined by them and how this affects their migratory decisions.

Słowa kluczowe: good life, aspirations, migration, informal tourism sector, India, Hampi, Goa
Appadurai A.
2013 The Future as Cultural Fact: Essays on the Global Condition, London–New York.
2016 Moodswings in the Anthropology of the Emerging Future, https://www.journals. uchicago.edu/doi/10.14318/hau6.2.002 (dostęp: 19.11.2016).
Ateljevic I., Doorne S.
2000 „Staying within the Fence”: Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Tourism, „Journal of Sustainable Tourism”, t. 8 (5), s. 378–392.
Benson M., O’Reilly K. (red.)
2016 Lifestyle Migration: Expectations, Aspirations and Experiences, London–New York.
Bianchi R.V.
2000 Migrant Tourist-workers: Exploring the ‘Contact Zones’ of Post-industrial Tourism, „Current Issues in Tourism”, t. 3 (2), s. 107–187.
Bloch N.
2016 Evicting Heritage: Spatial Cleansing and Cultural Legacy at the Hampi UNESCO Site in India, „Critical Asian Studies”, t. 48 (4), s. 556–578.
2017a Barbarians in India: Tourism as Moral Contamination, „Annals of Tourism Research”, t. 62, s. 64–77.
2017b Taxonomic Panic and the Art of „Making Do” at a Heritage Site: The Case of Hampi UNESCO Site, India, „Anthropological Notebooks”, t. 23 (3), s. 19–44.
2018 Bliscy nieznajomi. Turystyka i przezwyciężanie podporządkowania w postkolonialnych Indiach, Poznań.
Burman J.J.R.
2010 Ethnography of a Denotified Tribe: The Laman Banjara, New Delhi.
Calestani M.
2009 An Anthropology of ‘The Good Life’ in the Bolivian Plateau, „Social Indicators Research”, t. 90, s. 141–153.
Carlsen J., Morrison A., Weber P.
2008 Lifestyle Oriented Small Tourism Firms, „Tourism Recreation Research”, t. 33 (3), s. 255–263.
Clifford J.
1992 Travelling Cultures, w: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler (red.), Cultural Studies, London–New York, s. 96–116.
Coates J.
2017 Idleness as Method: Hairdressers and Chinese Urban Mobility in Tokyo, w: A. Elliot, R. Norum, N. B. Salazar (red.), Methodologies of Mobility: Ethnography and Experiment, New York–Oxford, s. 109–128.
Cohen E.
1982 The Pacific Islands from Utopian Myth to Consumer Product: The Disenchantment of Paradise, Aix-en-Provence.
Cooper M.J.
2002 Flexible Labour Markets, Ethnicity and Tourism-related Migration in Australia and New Zealand, w: C.M. Hall, A. Williams (red.), Dordrecht, Tourism and Migration: New Relationships between Production and Consumption, s. 73–86.
Dann G.
1996 The People of Tourist Brochures, w: T. Selwyn, (red.), The Tourist Image: Myths and Myth Making in Tourism, Chichester, s. 61–82.
Das A.K.
1996 Preliminary Findings on Divine and Royal Themes in the Chariot Festival at Hampi w: D.V. Devaraj, C.S. Patil (red.), Vijayanagara: Progress of Research: 1988–1991, Mysore, s. 210–215.
Edensor T.
1998 Tourists at the Taj: Performance and Meaning at a Symbolic Site, London–New York.
Fischer E.F.
2014 The Good Life: Aspiration, Dignity, and the Anthropology of Wellbeing, Stanford.
Fritz J.M., Michell G.
1991 City of Victory: Vijayanagara, the Medieval Hindu Capital of Southern India, New York.
2014 Hampi Vijayanagara, Mumbai.
Ghodsee K.
2005 The Red Riviera. Gender, Tourism, and Postsocialism on the Black Sea, Durham–London.
Gillen J.
2011 Off the Record: Segmenting Informal Discussions into Viable Methodological Categories, w: C.M. Hall (red.), Fieldwork in Tourism: Methods, Issues and Reflections, London–New York, s. 199–208.
Glick Schiller N., Irving A. (red.)
2014 Whose Cosmopolitanism? Critical Perspectives, Relationalities and Discontents, New York.
Grønseth A.S. (red.)
2013 Being Human, Being Migrant: Senses of Self and Well-being, Oxford.
Hall C.M., Williams A. (red.)
2002 Tourism and Migration: New Relationships between Production and Consumption, Dordrecht.
Herzfeld M.
2006 Spatial Cleansing: Monumental Vacuity and the Idea of the West, „Journal of Material Culture”, t. 11 (1/2), s. 127–149.
Jackson M.
2011 Life within Limits: Well-being in a World of Want, Durham.
Kotraiah C.T.M.
2008 Archaeology of Hampi-Vijayanagara, Delhi.
Mahony S.
2018 Searching for a Better Life: Growing Up in the Slums of Bangkok, New York–Oxford.
Mason P.
2002 The „Big OE”: New Zealanders Overseas Experiences in Britain, w: C.M. Hall, A. Williams (red.), Tourism and Migration: New Relationships between Production and Consumption, Dordrecht, s. 87–101.
Mathews G., Izquierdo C. (red.)
2009 Pursuits of Happiness: Well-being in Anthropological Perspective, New York. Naik D.B.
2010 The Art and Literature of Banjara Lambanis, New Delhi.
Oppermann M.
1993 Tourism Space in Developing Countries, „Annals of Tourism Research”, t. 20 (3), s. 535–556.
Ortner S.B.
2016 Dark Anthropology and Its Others: Theory Since the Eighties, „HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory”, t. 6 (1), s. 47–73.
Salazar N.B., Elliot A., Norum R.
2017 Studying Mobilities: Theoretical Notes and Methodological Queries, w: A. Elliot, R. Norum, N.B. Salazar (red.), Methodologies of Mobility: Ethnography and Experiment, New York–Oxford, s. 1–24.
Singh S., Repnik U., Chanchani A., Seshadri S., Viswanath R.
2012 Women Street Vendors & Tourism: Negotiating Lives and Spaces, Bangalore.
Uriely N.
2001 ‘Travelling Workers’ and ‘Working Tourists’: Variations across the Interaction between Work and Tourism, „International Journal of Tourism Research”, t. 3, s. 1–8.
Uriely N., Reichel A.
2000 Working Tourists and Their Attitudes to Hosts, „Annals of Tourism Research”, t. 27 (2), s. 267–283.
Verghese A.
2002 Hampi: Monumental Legacy, New Delhi.
Williams A., Hall C.M.
2002 Tourism, Migration, Circulation and Mobility: The Contingencies of Time and Place, w: C.M. Hall, A. Williams (red.), Tourism and Migration: New Relationships between Production and Consumption, Dordrecht, s. 1–52.
Wilson D.
1997 Strategies for Sustainability: Lessons from Goa and the Seychelles, w: M.J. Stabler (red.), Tourism and Sustainability: Principles to Practice, New York–Wallingford, s. 173–197.

Kwartalnik "Prace Etnograficzne" ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.

Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana kwartalnie w internecie.