Ekstrema ciepła w zmieniającym się klimacie Europy: definicje, przyczyny, tendencje, skutki

Agnieszka Sulikowska,

Agnieszka Wypych

Abstrakt

Hot and warm extremes in Europe’s changing climate: definitions, causes, trends, impacts

Hot or warm extremes are days with exceptionally high air temperatures in a given place and/or season. They may have significant impacts on human health and life, the natural environment, and the economy. The global rise in near-surface air temperatures translates into increases in the frequency, intensity, and duration of such events, which contributes to the intensive development of research on them. This review aims to summarize the state of knowledge of hot and warm extremes in Europe, with a special focus on their definitions, physical drivers and impacts, long-term variability and trends. The study demonstrates that research on temperature extremes is making remarkable progress, but there are still issues to be explored to understand these complex events.

Keywords: heat waves, warm spells, air temperature, atmospheric circulation, climate change


Zarys treści: Ekstrema ciepła to dni z wyjątkowo wysoką temperaturą powietrza w danym miejscu i/lub porze roku. Często wiążą się one z negatywnymi konsekwencjami dla zdrowia i życia człowieka, a także środowiska przyrodniczego, rolnictwa i gospodarki. Globalnemu ociepleniu klimatu towarzyszy wzrost częstości ekstremów ciepła, co przyczynia się do intensywnego rozwoju badań na ich temat. W tym opracowaniu podjęto próbę podsumowania stanu wiedzy na temat ekstremów ciepła w Europie, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem metod ichidentyfikacji, rozpoznania ich przyczyn i następstw oraz oceny ich zmienności wieloletniej i trendów. Zestawienie wyboru prac na temat tych złożonych zdarzeń może pomóc w zidentyfikowaniu zagadnień, które wciąż wymagają zgłębienia i wyjaśnienia, tym samym stanowiąc wstęp do dalszych rozważań.

Słowa kluczowe: fale upałów, dni ciepłe, temperatura powietrza, cyrkulacja atmosferyczna, zmiany klimatu
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