Stres bojowy w kontekście działań kontrrebelianckich sił zbrojnych USA w Operacji Enduring Freedom w Afganistanie

Bartosz Kruszyński

Abstrakt

Combat stress in the context of counter-insurgency US-led Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan

The article discusses the problems associated with combat stress in the context of counter-insurgency US-led Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. The author analyzes how this phenomenon was defined historically as well as during the above-mentioned conflict; he tries to define how it could have shaped the behavior of the soldier on the battlefield, what precautions were undertaken to counteract it and what were the consequences of long-term stress on the soldiers.  The author of the article mentions the main factors which generated combat stress and presents the role of leaders in stress management.  Following the theoretical part of the article, the author shows the environment of combat stress on an example of a concrete combat situation and an effective reaction and conduct of the leader-commander in this situation.  American field manuals and literature relating to military medicine – psychiatry, as well as materials published by the US military and government institutions, have been used as source materials for the above publication.
 

Słowa kluczowe: stres bojowy, stres bojowy i operacyjny, Afganistan, operacje kontrrebelianckie, obrażenia psychologiczne
References

Źródła:

AR 40-216, Neuropsychiatry, Washington 1959.

FM 7-0, Training For Full Spectrum Operations, Washington 2008.

FM 5-19, Composite Risk Management, Washington 2006.

FM 8.51, Leaders’ Manual for Combat Stress Control, Washington 1994.

FM 8-51, Combat Stress Control in a Theater Of Operations. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, Washington 1998.

FM 6-22.5, Combat Stress, Washington 2000.

FM 6-22.5, Combat and Operational Stress Control Manual for Leaders and Soldiers, Washington 2009.

FM 4-02.51, Combat and Operational Stress Control, Washington 2006.

FM 4.02, Army Health System, Washington 2013.

JIEDDO. Counter-IED Strategic Plan 2012–2016. Attack The Network, Defeat The Device, Train The Force, Washington 2012.

JP 1-02, The Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Washington 2001.

Literatura:

Gal R., Jones F. D., A Psychological Model of Combat Stress [w:] War Psychiatry, Washington 1995, s. 133–148.

Invisible Wounds of War. Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery, red. T. Tanielian, L.H. Jaycox, Santa Monica 2008.

Katzman K., Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, Washington 2013.

Moore B.A., Reger G.M., Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Combat Stress and the Army Combat Stress Control Team [w:] Combat Stress. Injury. Theory, Research, and Management, red. Ch.R. Figley, W.P. Nash, New York – London 2007, s. 161–167.

Nash W.P., Combat/Operational Stress Adaptations and Injuries [w:] Combat Stress. Injury. Theory, Research, and Management, red. Ch.R. Figley, W.P. Nash, New York – London 2007, s. 33–38.

Nash W.P., The Stressors of War [w:] Combat Stress. Injury. Theory, Research, and Management, red. Ch.R. Figley, W.P. Nash, New York–London 2007, s. 36–55.

Strony internetowe:

http://www.stress.org

http://icasualties.org

http://www.cmohs.org

http://www.history.army.mil

http://www.army.mil

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