Fellow Citizens or Aliens? Galician Refugees during the First World War in Hungary

Kamil Ruszała


The outbreak of the First World War (1914–1918) forced the countless civilians to leave their homes and to become war refugees. This topic has remained largely unexplored by the historians. The number of refugees from the multinational Galicia in the years 1914–1918 was large in many parts of the former Austria-Hungary, which finds its reflection in archival materials scattered over various archives and over an extensive territory. This paper presents the issue of the Galician war refugees who found themselves in the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. It also outlines the general problem of emigration as well as describes relations between the refugees and the local people. It was not only due to antagonisms but also due to the administrative decisions of the Hungarian authorities that the Galician refugees remained alien to the locals, despite the fact they all were citizens of the same Habsburg Monarchy.

Słowa kluczowe: First World War, refugees, Galicia, Austria-Hungary

Primary Sources

Österreichisches Staatsarchiv (ÖStA), Kriegsarchiv (KA), Zentralstelle, Kriegsministerium, HR, Abt. 10, Karton (Kt.) 516.

ÖStA, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (AVA), Ministerium des Innern (MdI), Allgemeine (Allg.), Fasz. 19, Kt. 1921, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1929, 1930, 1956, 1964, 1967, 1974, 1978, 2018, 2026.

Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Megyei Levéltára, IV. 407. JNSZ Vármegye alispánjának iratai 1236/1915.

Budapesti Hírlap 1914, 1915, 1918.

Ilustrowany Kuryer Codzienny 1916, 1917, 1918.

Pester Lloyd 1915.


Gatrell P., A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia During World War I, Indianapolis 2005.

Gatrell P., The Making of the Modern Refugee, Oxford 2013.

Gatrell P., Zhvanko L. (eds.), Europe on the Move: Refugees in the Era of the Great War, Manchester 2017.

Mentzel W., Kriegsflüchtlinge in Cisleithanien im Ersten Weltkreg, Wien 1997 (unpublished, manuscript gatheted in Bibliothek des Institutes für Zeitgeschichte der Universität Wien).

Nemes R., “Refugees and Antisemitism in Hungary During the First World War” [in:] Sites of European Antisemitism in the Age of Mass Politics, 1880–1918, eds. H. Kieval, D. Unowsku, R. Nemes, Waltham, Mass. 2014.

Ruszała K., “Galicyjscy uchodźcy w Austro-Węgrzech w trakcie pierwszej wojny światowej” [in:] Wielki Przełom. Konflikty zbrojne i przemiany wojskowości 1912–1923, ed. M. Baczkowski, Kraków 2018, pp. 107–121.

Ruszała K., “Intellectuals and the Galician Refugees During World War I in Austria-Hungary: Disparate Attitudes” [in:] Intellectuals and World War I. A Central European Perspective, eds. T. Pudłocki, K. Ruszała, Kraków 2018.

Ruszała K., “Unwelcome guests”: Situation of Galician Refugees in Austro-Hungary in 1918 (in press).

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line. Pierwotną wersją
czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana kwartalnie w internecie.