Oblicza kina queer: od cross-dressingu do filmów transgenderowych

Małgorzata Radkiewicz

Abstrakt

Queer Cinema: From cross-dressing to transgender films
The article offers a general view on queer in cinema, focusing on 1990s, and the New Queer Cinema, and selected transgender films. It addresses the issue of both gender and sexuality, in terms of queer theory and queer film studies. There is a short introduction to the history of representation of queer identity in cinema, including classical and genre films. Meanwhile it is a kind of popularization of fi lm analysis from the queer perspective, as the
one represented by Alexander Doty.
The next part of the article examine the tradition of recent queer cinema, including The New Queer Cinema and films of individual authors. It is shown that both in terms of its aesthetics and narration, queer cinema tends to re-imagine and re-create ways of representations, against the conventional fixed models of masculine and feminine, dictated by dominant orders and ideology. There are also two separate parts dedicated to the phenomena of
cross-dressing, and to transgender on screen.
Concluding, the article presents different aspects of the issue of queer cinema, exposing some of its common features, such as: an ironic self-awareness associated with post-modern representation; new conceptualization of self as transgender, transsexual, drag; crossings and transgressing of gender and/or sex boundaries, whether temporary or permanent, on the level of representation or anatomically.

Słowa kluczowe: queer cinema, transgender cinema, crossdressing
References

Doty A., Whose Text Is It Anyway? Queer Studies, Queer Auteurs, and Queer Authorship, w: Queer Cinema, the Film Reader, red. Harry Benshoff, Sean Griffin, New York, London: Routledge, 2004.

Foucault M., Herculine Barbin. Being the Recently Discovered Memories of a Nineteenth-century French Hermaphrodite, The Harvester Press, Brighton 1980.

Garber M., Vested Interests: Cross-dressing and Cultural Anxiety, Penguin Books, London 1993.

Hirschfeld M., Die Transvestiten. Eine Untersuchung über den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb mit umfangreichem casuistischen und historischen Material, Berlin 1910: Alfred Pulvermacher; Magnus Hirschfeld, Transvestites: The erotic drive to cross dress., tłum. M. A. Lombardi-Nash, NY: Prometheus Books, Buffalo 1991.

Paglia C., What a Drag: Marjorie Garber’s Vested Interests: Cross-dressing and Cultural Anxiety, w: Sex, Art and American Culture Essays, Penguin, Harmondsworth 1992.

Phillips J., Transgender on Screen, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2006.

B. R. Ruby, New Queer Cinema, “Sight and Sound” 1992, nr 2.

Whittle S., The Transgender Debate. The Crisis Surrounding Gender Identity, South Street Press, Reading 2000.

Żurawiecki B., Geje i lesbijki w kinie, w: Queer Studies. Podręcznik kursu, red. Jacek Kochanowski, Marta Abramowicz, Robert Biedroń, Kampania Przeciw Homofobii, Warszawa 2010.

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