Od czynów do słów: intersemiotyczne nadpisy w uwspółcześnionych spektaklach operowych

Aleksandra Ożarowska


Putting Action into Words: Intersemiotic Surtitles in Modernised Opera Productions

Since their debut over operatic stages in the early 1980s, surtitles have become an important part of the audiovisual translation field. It is also, among others, thanks to them that opera is currently regaining its popularity – they make opera productions more accessible and audience-friendly. Surtitles can also considerably shape an opera production, especially when it is modernised. Modernising operatic productions is nowadays one of the most popular trends in major opera houses, though it is not free of many challenges. Libretti are always sung in original, but bringing the action a few centuries ahead may mean that the original text does not correspond to what the viewers can see on the stage. In such cases surtitles may serve as a bridge between the original and stage design. Recently, some opera houses have started treating surtitles as an integral part of their productions and sometimes the whole translation follows the modernised production both semantically and stylistically. The original for such translations is then not just the libretto, but the whole production and surtitles become intersemiotic. This clash between different messages is the source of innovations, and surtitles, which closely follow modernised productions may be considered to be a translational experiment.

Słowa kluczowe: przekład, opera, libretto, intersemiotyczność, nadpisy, przekład audiowizualny, translation, intersemiotic, surtitles, audiovisual translation

Burton, Jonathan. 2009. The Art and Craft of Opera Surtitling, w: J. Díaz Cintas, G. Andermann (red.), Audiovisual Translation: Language Transfer on Screen, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, s. 58–70.

– 2010. The Joy of Opera: The Art and Craft of Opera Subtitling and Surtitling, w: Ł. Bogucki, K. Kredens (red). Perspectives on Audiovisual Translation, Bern: Peter Lang, s. 179–188.

Desblache, Lucile. 2007. Music to My Ears, but Words to My Eyes? Text, Opera and Their Audiences, „Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies” 6, s. 155–170, https://lans-tts.uantwerpen.be/index.php/LANS-TTS/article/view/185/116 (dostęp: 10.11.2021).

Díaz Cintas, Jorge, Remael, Aline. 2007. Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling, Manchester, Kinderhook: St. Jerome Publishing.

Gottlieb, Henrik. 1994. Subtitling: Diagonal Translation, „Perspectives” 1(2), s. 101–121.

– 2003. Parameters of Translation, „Perspectives” 2(1), s. 167–187.

– 2004. Subtitles and International Anglification, „Nordic Journal of English Studies” 1(3), s. 219–130, http://ojs.ub.gu.se/ojs/index.php/njes/article/view/244 (dostęp: 04.06.2021).

– 2005. Multidimensional Translation: Semantics Turned Semiotics, w: S. Nauert, H. Gerzymisch-Arbogast (red.), Proceedings of the Marie Curie Euroconferences MuTra: Challenges of Multidimensional Translation Saarbrücken 26 May 2005, s. 1–29, https://www.euroconferences.info/proceedings/2005_Proceedings/2005_Gottlieb_Henrik.pdf (dostęp: 20.09.2020).

– 2008. Multidimensional Translation, w: A. Schjoldager, H. Gottlieb, I. Klitgård (red.), Understanding Translation, Copenhagen: Academica, s. 39–65.

– 2018. Semiotics and Translation, w: K. Malmkjær (red.), The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies and Linguistics. London–New York: Routledge, s. 45–63.

Holden, Anthony. 2005. Surtitles at Last I Knew I Was Right, www.theguardian.com, https://www.theguardian.com/music/2005/jun/12/classicalmusicandopera1 (dostęp: 20.08.2020).

Jakobson, Roman. 2009. O językoznawczych aspektach przekładu, przeł. L. Pszczołowska, w: P. Bukowski, M. Heydel (red.). Współczesne teorie przekładu. Kraków: Znak, s. 43–49.

Kaindl, Klaus. 1994. Lets have a party! Übersetzungskritik ohne Original? Am Beispiel der Bühnenübersetzung, w: M. Snell Hornby, F. Pöchhacker, K. Kaindl (red.), Translation Studies. An Interdiscipline. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, s. 115–126.

– 1995. Die Oper als Textgestalt. Perspektiven einer interdisziplinären Übersetzungswissenschaft, Tübingen: Stauffenburg-Verlag.

Kaźmierczak, Marta. 2017. Od przekładu intersemiotycznego do intersemiotycznych aspektów tłumaczenia,, „Przekładaniec 34, s. 7–35.

Mateo, Marta. 2007. Surtitling Today: New Uses, Attitudes and Developments, „Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies” 13, s. 135–154. https://lans-tts.uantwerpen.be/index.php/LANS-TTS/article/view/184/115 (dostęp: 10.03.2018).

Minors, Helen.J. 2020. Opera and Intercultural Musicology as Modes of Translation, A. Şerban, K. Kar Yue Chan (red.), Opera in Translation. Unity and Diversity, Amsterdam, Philadephia: Benjamins Translation Library, s. 13–33.

Nord, Christiane. 2018. Translation as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.

Ożarowska, Aleksandra. 2017a. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell: On The Functional Approach to Translating Libretti for Modernised Opera Productions, „Anglica: An International Journal of English Studies” 26(2), Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, s. 171–183.

– 2017b. The Paramount Role of Translation in Modern Opera Productions, A. Wicher, R.E. Burke (red.), „Text Matters: A Journal of Literature, Theory and Culture” 7, Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, s. 258–272.

– 2017c. Translating Operatic Libretti as an Interdisciplinary Area of Translation Studies, w: S. Ciekańska, D. Długosz, B. Woźniak (red.), Transgresja – Interdyscyplinarność Dyskurs. Paradygmaty współczesnej neofilologii, t. 1, Warszawa: Instytut Germanistyki Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, s. 69–80.

Palmer, Judy. 2014. Surtitling Opera: A Surtitlers Perspective on Making and Breaking the Rules, w: H.J. Minors (red.), Music, Text and Translation, London–New Delhi–New York–Sydney, s. 21–33.

– 2020. Surtitles and the Multi-Semiotic Balance: Can Over-Information Kill Opera?, w: A. Şerban, K. Kar Yue Chan (red.), Opera in Translation. Unity and Diversity, Amsterdam. Philadephia: Benjamins Translation Library, s. 35–51.

Savage, Roger. 2001. The Staging of Opera, w: R. Parker (red.), The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, New York: Oxford University Press, s. 350–420.

Tommasini, Anthony. 2008. So Thats What the Fat Lady Sang, www.nytimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/06/arts/music/06tomm.html (dostęp: 25.08.2020).

Wakin, Daniel. 2013. Oh, Baby! That Duke Sure is a Dreamboat in the New Rigoletto, www.nytimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/09/arts/music/mets-titlestranslate-rigoletto-into-1960-rat-pack-speak.html (dostęp: 25.08.2020).

Virkkunen, Riitta. 2004. The Source Text of Opera Surtitles, „Meta” 49(1), s. 89–97, https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/meta/2004-v49-n1-meta733/009024ar.pdf (dostęp: 11.08.2020).