The Role of Speech Comprehension in the Early Stages of Theory of Mind Development in Children with ASD

Karolina Krzysztofik,

Katarzyna Mariańczyk

Abstrakt

In order to determine whether the reported association between the development of theory of mind (ToM) and speech comprehension in ASD children also exists at the early stages of ToM development, a group of 33 children with ASD and reduced ToM development were tested using the Belief understanding subscale of the SToMM and the Speech comprehension subscale of the IDS-P. The statistical analyses demonstrated that children with ASD presenting different levels of early ToM skills also have different levels of speech comprehension. Accordingly, supporting the development of speech comprehension can facilitate the acquisition of early ToM skills. At the same time, the results of a qualitative analysis also suggested that manipulating objects in space, moving them as well as moving themselves may help children with ASD to complete ToM tasks.

Słowa kluczowe: zaburzenia ze spektrum autyzmu (ASD), teoria umysłu, rozumienie mowy, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), theory of mind, speech comprehension
References

American Psychiatric Association (2000), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (edition 4 revised). Washington, DC: APA.

American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (edition 5). Washington, DC: APA.

Baird G., Simonoff E., Pickles A., Chandler S., Loucas T., Meldrum D., Charman T. (2006), Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP), Lancet, 368(9531), 210–215.

Baron-Cohen S. (1995), Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge: The MIT Press. 

Baron-Cohen S. (2005), The empathizing system: A revision of the 1994 model of the mindreading system. In: B. Ellis, D. Bjorklund (eds.), Origins of the Social Mind, 468–492. New York: Guilford.

Białecka-Pikul M. (2012), Narodziny i rozwój refleksji nad myśleniem. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Boucher J., Bigham S., Mayes A., Muskett T. (2008), Recognition and language in low functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(7), 1259–1269.

Fecenec D., Jaworowska A., Matczak A. (2015), IDS-P Skale Inteligencji i Rozwoju dla Dzieci w Wieku Przedszkolnym. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Fisher N., HappéF., Dunn J. (2005), The relationship between vocabulary, grammar, and false belief task performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders and children with moderate learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(4), 409–419. 

Frith U. (2012), Why we need cognitive explanations of autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 2073–2092.

Grob, A., Reimann, G., Gut, J., & Frichknecht, M.C. (2013). Intelligence and Development Scales Preschool, Hogrefe Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.

Grosse Wiesmann Ch., Southgate V. (2021), Early theory of mind development –Are infants inherently altercentic? In: M. Gilead, K.N. Ochsner (eds.), The Neural Basis of Mentalizing, 49–66. Basel: Springer.

Hadwin J., Baron-Cohen S., Howlin P., Hill K. (1996), Can we teach children with autism to understand emotions, belief and pretence?. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 345–365.

HappéF. (1995), The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Development, 66, 843–855.

He Z., Bolz M., Baillargeon R. (2012), 2.5-year-olds succeed at a verbal anticipatory-looking false-belief task. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 14–29.

Howlin P., Baron-Cohen S., Hadwin J. (1999), Teaching Children with Autism to Mind-Read: A Practical Guide. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

Joseph R.M., Tager-Flusberg H. (2004), The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions to symptom type and severity in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 137–155.

Krzysztofik K. (2016), Skala Mechanizmu Teorii Umysłu (SToMM). Lublin: Katedra Psychologii Rehabilitacji Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego.

Lai M.C., Lombardo M.V., Chakrabarti B., Baron-Cohen S. (2013), Subgrouping of autism “spectrum”: Reflections on DSM-5. PLoS Biology, 11(4), e1001544-e1001544.

Lombardo M.V., Lai M.-Ch., Auyeung B., Holt R.J., Allison C., Smith P., , Baron-Cohen S. (2016), Unsupervised data-driven stratification of mentalizing heterogeneity in autism. Scientific Reports, 6, 35333 (2016) 1–29.

McGregor K.K., Rost G., Arenas R., Farris-Trimble A., Stiles D. (2013), Children with ASD can use gaze in support of word recognition and learning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(7), 745–753.

Milligan K., Astington J.W., Dack L.A. (2007), Language and theory of mind: Meta-analysis of the relation between language ability and false belief understanding. Child Development, 77, 622–646.

Mody M., Belliveau J.W. (2013), Speech and language impairments in autism: Insights from behavior and neuroimaging. North American Journal of Medicine & Science, 5(3), 157–161.

Pearson A., Marsh L., Ropar D., Hamilton A. (2016), Cognitive mechanisms underlying visual perspective taking in typical and ASC children. Autism Research, 9(1), 121–130.

Pedreño C., Pousa E., Navarro J.B., Primas M., Obiols J.E. (2017), Exploring the Components of Advanced Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 2401–2409.

Peterson C.C., Slaughter V., Moore C., Wellman H.W. (2015), Peer social skills and theory of mind in children with autism, deafness, or typical development. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 46–57.

Rubio-Fernández P., Geurts B. (2013), How to pass the false-belief task before your fourth birthday. Psychological Science, 24(1), 27–33.

Wellman H.M., Cross D., Watson J. (2001), A meta-analysis of theory of mind development: The truth about the false belief. Child Development, 72, 655–684.

Wilson C.E., Gillan N., Spain D., Robertson D., Roberts G., Murphy C.M., , Murphy D.G.M. (2013), Comparison of ICD-10R, DSM-IV-R and DSM-5 in an adult Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnostic clinic. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, (43), 2515–2525. 

World Health Organization (1992), Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (edition 10). Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization (2018), Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (edition 11). Geneva: WHO.