Mentalizacja jako czynnik ochronny pomiędzy pozabezpiecznym przywiązaniem a rozwojem zaburzeń psychopatologicznych

Anna Papińska

Abstrakt

Mentalization as a Protective Factor between Insecure Attachment and the Development of Psychopathological Disorders

The development of mental disorders in adults has its roots in the early childhood experiences. Transmitted from generation to generation, an insecure attachment impairs the ability to mentalize, which plays a special role in the processing of traumatic injuries and the healing process. The aim of the article is to show the development of mental disorders in children and adults; to present mentalization as a protective factor in the transmission of insecure attachment, as well as to indicate clinical implications.

Słowa kluczowe: mentalizacja, pozabezpieczne przywiązanie, trauma więzi, transmisja międzypokoleniowa, mentalization, insecure attachment, trauma of attachment, intergenerational transmission
References

Adamczyk L. (2013), Mentalizacja. Cz. 1: Wprowadzenie do zagadnienia, wymiary mentalizacji. Psychoterapia, 3(166), 25–36.

Ainsworth M.D., Blehar M.C., Waters E., Wall S. (1978), Patterns of Attachment: Assessed in the Strange Situation and at Home. Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Allen J.G. (2013), Mentalizing in the Development and Treatment of Attachment Trauma. London: Karnac.

Allen J.G., Fonagy P., Bateman A. (2014), Mentalizowanie w praktyce klinicznej. Tłum. M. Cierpisz. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Asen E., Fonagy P. (2012), Mentalization-based therapeutic interventions for families. Journal of Family Therapy, 34(4), 347–370.

Bateman A., Fonagy P. (2019), A randomized controlled trial of a mentalization-based intervention (MBTFACTS) for families of people with borderline personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 10(1), 70–79.

Behrendt H.F., Wade M., Bayet L., Nelson C.A., Bosquet Enlow M. (2019), Pathways to social-emotional functioning in the preschool period: The role of child temperament and maternal anxiety in boys and girls. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1–14.

Bouchard M.A., Target M., Lecours S., Fonagy P., Tremblay L.M., Schachter A., Stein H. (2008), Mentalization in adult attachment narratives: Reflective functioning, mental states, and affect elaboration compared. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 25(1), 47–66.

Bowlby J. (1973), Attachment and Loss. Separation: Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby J. (1988), A Secure Base: Parent-Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York: Basic Books.

Daniel S. (2009), The developmental roots of narrative expression in therapy: Contributions form attachment theory and research. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46(3), 301–316.

De Bellis M.D., Zisk A. (2014), The biological effects of childhood trauma. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23(2), 185–222.

Dollberg D., Hanetz Gamliel K., Levy S. (2020), Mediating and moderating links between coparenting, parental mentalization, parents’ anxiety, and children’s behavior problems. Journal of Family Psychology. Advance online publication.

Ein-Dor T., Doron G., Solomon Z., Mikulincer M., Shaver P.R. (2010), Together in pain: Attachment-related dyadic processes and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 317–327.

Ein-Dor T., Viglin D., Doron G. (2016), Extending the transdiagnostic model of attachment and psychopathology. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article 484.

Ensink K., Normandin L., Plamondon A., Berthelot N., Fonagy P. (2016), Intergenerational pathways from reflective functioning to infant attachment through parenting. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 48(1), 9–18.

Farina B., Liotti G. (2013), Does a dissociative psychopathological dimension exist? A review on dissociative processes and symptoms in developmental trauma spectrum disorders. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 10(1), 11–18. 

Farina B., Liotti M., Imperatori C. (2019), The role of attachment trauma and disintegrative pathogenic processes in the traumatic-dissociative dimension. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Fearon R.M.P., Roisman G.I. (2017), Attachment theory: Progress and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 131–136.

Fonagy P. (1994), Mental representations from an intergenerational cognitive science perspective. Infant Mental Health Journal, 15(1), 57–68.

Fonagy P., Gergely G., Target M. (2008), Psychoanalytic constructs and attachment theory and research. W: J. Cassidy, P.R. Shaver (eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications, 783–810. New York: The Guilford Press.

Fonagy P., Luyten P. (2009), A developmental, mentalization-based approach to the understanding and treatment of borderline personality disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 21(4), 1355–1381.

Fricker J., Moore S. (2002), Relationship satisfaction: The role of love styles and attachment styles. Current Research in Social Psychology, 7(11), 182–204.

Granqvist P., Sroufe L.A., Dozier M., Hesse E., Steele M., Ijzendoorn M. van i in. (2017), Disorganized attachment in infancy: A review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makersAttachment and Human Development, 19, 534–558.

Groh A.M., Fearon R.M.P., IJzendoorn M.H. van, Bakermans-Kranenburg M. J., Roisman G.I. (2016), Attachment in the early life course: Meta-analytic evidence for its role in socioemotional development. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), 70–76.

Hertsgaard L., Gunnar M., Erickson M., Nachmias M. (1995), Adrenocortical responses to the strange situation in infants with disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships. Child Development, 66(4), 1100–1106.

Illing V., Tasca G.A., Balfour L., Bissada H. (2010), Attachment insecurity predict seating disorder symptoms and treatment outcomes in a clinical sample of women. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 653–659. 

Iniewicz G. (2008), Zaburzenia emocjonalne u dzieci i młodzieży z perspektywy teorii przywiązania. Psychiatria Polska, 27(5), 671–682.

Kim E.J., Pellman B., Kim J.J. (2015), Stress effects on the hippocampus: A critical review. Learning and Memory, 22(9), 411–416.

Kolk B.A. van der, McFarlane A.C., Weisaeth L. (eds.) (1996), Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body and Society. New York: Guilford Press.

Krueger R.F., Markon K.E. (2011), A dimensional-spectrum model of psychopathology: Progress and opportunities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(1), 10–11.

La Guardia J.G., Ryan R.M., Couchman C.E., Deci E.L. (2000), Within-person variation in security of attachment: A Self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367–384.

Lavoie M., Battaglia M., Achim A. (2014), A meta-analysis and scoping review of social cognition performance in social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(2), 169–177.

Lindgren L., Bergdahl J., Nyberg L. (2016), Longitudinal evidence for smaller hippocampus volume as a vulnerability factor for perceived stress. Cerebral Cortex, 26(8), 3527–3533.

Liotti G., Farina B. (2016), Traumatyczny rozwój. Etiologia, klinika i terapia wymiaru dysocjacyjnego. Tłum. H. Michalska, Bledzew: Fundacja Przyjaciele Martynki.

Madigan S., Atkinson L., Laurin K., Benoit D. (2013), Attachment and internalizing behavior in early childhood: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 49(4), 672–689.

Marszał M. (2015), Mentalizacja w kontekście przywiązania. Zdolność do rozumienia siebie i innych u osób z osobowością borderline. Warszawa: Delfin.

Marszał M., Jańczak A. (2017), Emotion dysregulation, mentalization and romantic attachment in the nonclinical adolescent female sample. Current Psychology, 37(4), 894–904.

Meins E., Fernyhough C., Fradley E., Tuckey M. (2001), Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers’ comments on infants’ mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(5), 637–648.

Metz M., Majdandžić M., Bögels S. (2018), Concurrent and predictive associations between infants’ and toddlers’ fearful temperament, coparenting, and parental anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 47(4), 569–580.

Migda M. (2015), Trauma więzi a psychoterapia pacjentów z diagnozą PTSD w oparciu o mentalizację. Psychoterapia, 3, 99–105.

Mikulincer M., Florian V. (2003), Attachment style and affect regulation: Implications for coping with stress and mental health. W: G.J.O. Fletcher, M.S. Clark (eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Interpersonal Processes, 535–557.

Mikulincer M., Shaver P.R. (2007), Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics, and Change. New York: Guilford.

Oehlman Forbes D., Lee M., Lakeman R. (2020), The role of mentalization in child psychotherapy, interpersonal trauma, and recovery: A scoping review. Psychotherapy. Advance online publication.

Schore A.N. (2001), The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1–2), 201–269.

Senator D. (2010), Więź w rodzinie a ryzyko zaburzeń rozwoju emocjonalnego dzieci i młodzieży. W: B. Tryjarska (red.), Bliskość w rodzinie. Więzi w dzieciństwie a zaburzenia w dorosłości, 43–61. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

Sharp C., Fonagy P. (2008), The parent’s capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent: Constructs, measures and implications for developmental psychopathology. Social Development, 17, 737–754.

Slade A., Grienenberger J., Bernbach E., Levy D., Locker A. (2005), Maternal reflective functioning, attachment, and the transmission gap: A preliminary study. Attachment and Human Development, 7(3), 283–298.

Słaboń-Duda A. (2011), Wczesna relacja matka–dziecko i jej wpływ na dalszy rozwój emocjonalny dziecka. Psychoterapia, 2(157), 11–18.

Teicher M., Samson J., Anderson C., Ohashi K. (2016), The effects of childhood maltreatment on brain structure, function and connectivity. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 17, 652–666.

Turner, J. M., Wittkowski, A., & Hare, D. J. (2008). The relationship of maternal mentalization and executive functioning to maternal recognition of infant cues and bonding. British Journal of Psychology, 99(4), 499–512. https://doi:10.1348/000712608x289971

Wei M., Mallinckrodt B., Russell D.W., Abraham W.T. (2004), Maladaptive perfectionism as a mediator and moderator between adult attachment and depressive mood. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 201–212.

Weijers J.G., Kate C., Debbané M., Bateman A.W., Jong S. de, Selten J.P., Eurelings-Bontekoe E.H.M. (2020), Mentalization and psychosis: A rationale for the use of mentalization theory to understand and treat nonaffective psychotic disorder. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 50(3), 223–232.