Funkcjonowanie poznawcze, zmiany gałkoruchowe i oczne w przebiegu prawidłowego starzenia się i procesu otępiennego typu alzheimerowskiego – przegląd badań

Klaudia Ołownia,

Monika Wiłkość-Dębczyńska,

Przemysław Zabel,

Daria Kukuła,

Katarzyna Zabel,

Jakub J. Kałużny

Abstrakt

Cognitive functioning, eye and eye movement changesin the course of normal aging and the Alzheimer's dementia process- a review of research

Polish society is aging. Currently, people over 65 constitute 16.5% of the population. Along with changes in the population structure, the number of patients with dementia disorders increases. Every year, nearly 4.6 million patients with a diagnosis of dementia in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this article is to review studies that analyze visual-spatial deficits, ocular, and eye movement changes in physiologically aging people and in AD. With age, cognitive deficits appear, including: visual-spatial in the field of perception of complex stimuli, copying figures and visual construction, coordination and visual-spatial synthesis. By now, a number of studies have been conducted showing that people with AD have a reduced thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer of the eye. A decrease in macula volume and thickness is also observed, which correlates with the severity of emerging cognitive impairment. Research also points to the association of AD with ocular disorders. Patients in this group make a greater number of errors in anti-sakkad tests compared to healthy people. For AD, characteristic are delays of saccadic latency and delayed vertical saccade movement, lower accuracy and longer latency times, as well as reduced saccadic inhibition compared to people who are successfully aging. Identification of eye movement disorders provide information on the severity of the disease, but at the same time track its progression, and thus, probably evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment taken. Further studies will verify the diagnostic value of changes in the eye retina as an AD marker and eye movement disorders in determining the severity of the disease, monitoring its course and assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

Słowa kluczowe: cognitive functioning, eye changes, eye movements