Dyskusyjnie o klasyfikacji i pomiarze wzorców przywiązania

Zbigniew Łoś

Abstrakt

Debatably about classification and measurement of attachment patterns

Adult attachment patterns are usually based on two orthogonal dimensions (Bartholomew, Horowitz, 1991; Fraley, Shaver, 2000). This results in creating four qualitatively different types. Also four attachment patterns are educed by means of Adult Attachment Interview (Hesse, 1999). However results of classifying attachment patterns based on those three methods are only partially analogical.
Since it is assumed that attachment patterns are continued throughout development (Bowlby, 2007/1982; Hazan, Shaver, 1987), four adult attachment patterns should relate to four attachment patterns among children (A, B, C – Ainsworth et al., 1971; and D – Main et al., 1985). This is not so (or at least it is questionable).
The author contends with regard to Bowlby (2007/1982), Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991), that child’s experiences of attachment–care are the basis of internal working models of Self–other people relation. Those models should be characterized with three dimensions: trustlack of trust, dependence–independence and activity–passivity. The trust–lack of trust dimension allows to differentiate between secure and insecure attachment patterns (B and nB), whereas two other dimensions are used to classify four insecure attachment patterns. Intersection of dependence–independence dimension with activity–passivity dimension results in four insecure attachment patterns (fearful, dismissive, preoccupied, possessive). These patterns are developed sequentially throughout three stages of child development, analogous to E. Erikson’s. The article also presents „P–Questionnaire”, a method that allows to measure three attachment dimensions based on respondents’ romantic relationship functioning self-description.

Słowa kluczowe: attachment pattern, attachment style, internal working model, romantic relationship
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