The History of Artistic Freedom as a Legal Standard in Western Culture: An Attempt at Periodization of the Process of Its Formation

Mateusz Maria Bieczyński

Abstrakt

This article focuses the historical process of a radical reformulation of the mechanisms of legal regulation of creative activity in the field of visual arts on the European continent, beginning from the second commandment in the Old Testament (the prohibition of imaging) to the contemporary constitutional protection rules in place in Europe and the United States (freedom of artistic expression). The study assumes that the transition from the ban on imaging to the freedom of artistic expression was a result of the long-term evolution of social relations, which involved a gradual liberalization of cultural life and the liberation of the sphere of art from the dictates of religion, politics (the State), professional associations, and the rules of the art market. It characterizes specific historical periods which changed the model of regulating culture and art by the State (or religious communities), and proposes a model of periodization of the history of the formation of artistic freedom as a legal standard.

Keywords: art freedom, art and law, art censorship


Historia wolności artystycznej jako norma prawna w kulturze zachodniej – próba periodyzacji procesu jej powstawania

Streszczenie: Artykuł skupia się na historycznym procesie radykalnego przeformułowania mechanizmów prawnych regulacji działalności twórczej w dziedzinie sztuk wizualnych na kontynencie europejskim, począwszy od drugiego przykazania w Starym Testamencie (zakaz obrazowania) po współczesne konstytucyjne zasady ochrony obowiązujące w Europie i Stanach Zjednoczonych (wolność wypowiedzi artystycznej). W opracowaniu przyjmuje się, że przejście od zakazu obrazowania do wolności wypowiedzi artystycznej było wynikiem długofalowej ewolucji stosunków społecznych, która polegała na stopniowej liberalizacji życia kulturalnego i wyzwalaniu sfery sztuki spod dyktatu religii, polityki (państwa), stowarzyszeń zawodowych, zasad rynku sztuki. Opracowanie charakteryzuje poszczególne okresy historyczne, które zmieniły model regulowania kultury i sztuki przez państwo (lub wspólnoty wyznaniowe), a także proponuje model periodyzacji dziejów kształtowania się wolności artystycznej jako normy prawnej.

Słowa kluczowe: wolność sztuki, sztuka i prawo, cenzura sztuki
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