“Cultural Diversity” from the Perspective of Human Rights, Media, and Trade Law: Cross-Fertilization or Conflict?

Eleni Polymenopoulou

Abstrakt

Over the last twenty years, a number of high-level policy meetings have emphasized the significance of cultural diversity in all matters related to international cultural cooperation. Instruments negotiated both in the context of the UNESCO and other agencies of the United Nations demonstrate the pervasive interest of the international community in strategies enhancing cultural diversity. Yet the concept of diversity is a particularly broad one, entrenched on a variety of rationales for its protection, such as the promotion of human rights and democratic participation; sustainable and human development; protection of cultural industries vis-à-vis the liberalisation of audio-visual services and free trade; promotion of intercultural and interreligious dialogue; as well as protection of cultural rights and cultural heritage. As this article submits, the promotion of cultural diversity is a laudable cause in and of itself, and a first step towards achieving equality. Its omnipresence, however, taken in conjunction with its imprecise content and function in the cultural market (in accordance with the 2005 UNESCO Convention on the Promotion of Cultural Expressions) runs the risk of downplaying its significance and effectiveness.

Słowa kluczowe: cultural diversity, human rights, media, trade law, participation
References

Aoyagi K., Community or Group Rights: The Definition of Culture and Its Implications, in: Cultural Rights as Human Rights, UNESCO, Paris 1970.

Bantekas I., Stein M.A., Anastasiou D. (eds.), The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2018.

Bauman-Pauly D., Trabelsi L., The Business Case for Human Rights: Irrelevant or Indispensible?, in: I. Bantekas, M. Stein (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Business and Human Rights, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2021.

BBC Commits £100m to Increasing Diversity on TV, “BBC News”, 22 June 2020, https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-53135022  [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Blake J., Collective Cultural Rights Considered in the Light of Recent Developments in Cultural Heritage Law, in: A. Jakubowski (ed.), Cultural Rights as Collective Rights: An International Law Perspective, Brill/Nijhoff, Leiden–Boston 2016.

Brems E., Human Rights: Universality and Diversity, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden 2001.

Brooks E., Cultural Imperialism vs. Cultural Protectionism: Hollywood’s Response to UNESCO Efforts to Promote Cultural Diversity, “Journal of International Business & Law” 2006, Vol. 5(1).

Bruner C.M., UNESCO and the Future of Trade in Cultural Products, “New York University Journal of International Law and Politics” 2008, Vol. 40(351).

Buchanan L., Bui Q., Patel J.K., Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History, “New York Times”, 3 July 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/07/03/us/george-floyd-protests-crowd-size.html  [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Cahan S., Kocur Z., Contemporary Art and Multicultural Education, in: E. Joo, J. Keehn II, J. Ham-Roberts (eds.), Rethinking Contemporary Art and Multicultural Education: New Museum of Contemporary Art, Routledge, New York 2011.

Carballal-Benaglio C., Cultural Diversity: Making Intercultural Collaboration Possible for Multi­national Corporations, “Law & Business Review of the Americas” 2013, Vol. 19(3).

CESCR, General Comment No. 21: Right of Everyone to Take Part in Cultural Life (Art. 15, Para. 1 (a), of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 21 De­cember 2009, UN Doc. E/C.12/GC/21.

Charr M., What Can Museums Teach Us About Diversity?, “Museum Next”, 1 June 2020, https://www.museumnext.com/article/what-can-museums-teach-us-about-diversi­ty/  [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Choi W.-M., Screen Quota and Cultural Diversity: Debates in Korea-US FTA Talks and Convention on Cultural Diversity, “Asian Journal of WTO & International Health Law & Policy” 2007, Vol. 2.

Choudhury B., New Rationales for Women on Boards, “Oxford Journal of Legal Studies” 2014, Vol. 34(3).

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 16 November 1945.

Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 16 November 1972, 1037 UNTS 151.

Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 17 October 2003, 2368 UNTS 3.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 December 1979, 1249 UNTS 13.

Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, 20 October 2005, 2440 UNTS 311.

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 13 December 2006, 2515 UNTS 3.

Council of Europe, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, 1 February 1995, ETS No. 157.

D’amico Soggetti G., Article 15: Participation of Communities, Groups and Individuals – Partici­pation and Democracy, in: J.E. Blake, L. Lixinski (eds.), The 2003 UNESCO Intangible Her­itage Convention: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2020.

d’Orville H., What the UN Can Do to Promote Dialogue among Civilizations, https://www.un­.org/en/chronicle/article/what-un-can-do-promote-dialogue-among-civilizations  [ac­cessed: 24.09.2021].

Declaration of the Principles of International Cultural Co-operation, 4 November 1966, http://www.un-documents.net/dpicc.htm  [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Donders Y., Do Cultural Diversity and Human Rights Make a Good Match?, UNESCO, Paris 2010.

European Broadcasting Union, Over 40 EBU Radio Music Channels to Support Cultural Diver­sity on Landmark UNESCO Date, 12 May 2021, https://www.ebu.ch/news/2021/05/over-40-ebu-radio-music-channels-to-support-cultural-diversity-on-landmark-unes­co-date [accessed: 24.09.2021].

European Court of Human Rights, Meltex Ltd. and Mesrop Movsesyan v. Armenia, Application No. 32283/04, Judgment of 17 September 2008.

Fleming D., Museums, Human Rights, Contested Histories and Excluded Communities, “Museum International” 2015, Vol. 67.

Hamzic V., Sexual and Gender Diversity in the Muslim World: History, Law and Vernacular Knowl­edge, I.B. Tauris, London 2019.

Hewlett S.A., Marshall M., Sherbin L., How Diversity Can Drive Innovation, “Harvard Business Review” 2013, Vol. 2.

Holger D., The Business Case for More Diversity, “Wall Street Journal”, 26 October 2019.

Human Rights Council, Intersessional Seminar on Cultural Rights and the Protection of Cultural Heritage, 27 December 2017, UN Doc. A/HRC/37/29.

Human Rights Council, Report of the Independent Expert in the Field of Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed, 21 March 2011, UN Doc. A/HRC/17/38.

Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights, 3 Febru­ary 2016, UN Doc. A/HRC/31/59.

Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights, Karima Bennoune, 10 August 2020, UN Doc. A/75/298.

Human Rights Council, Resolution 33/20: Cultural Rights and the Protection of Cultural Herit­age, 6 October 2016, UN Doc. A/HRC/RES/33/20.

Human Rights Council, Resolution 37/17: Cultural Rights and the Protection of Cultural Herit­age, 9 April 2018, UN Doc. A/HRC/RES/37/17.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Granier et al. (Radio Caracas Television – RCTV) v. Ven­ezuela, Judgment of 22 June 2015.

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 21 De­cember 1965, 660 UNTS 195.

International Law Commission, Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law: Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission, Finalized by Martti Koskenniemi, 13 April 2006, UN Doc. A/CN.4/L.682.

Jacobs M., Article 15: Participation of Communities, Groups and Individuals. CGIs, Not Just ‘the Community’, in: J.E. Blake, L. Lixinski (eds.), The 2003 UNESCO Intangible Heritage Convention: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2020.

Jakubowski A. (ed.), Cultural Rights as Collective Rights: An International Law Perspective, Brill/ Nijhoff, Leiden–Boston 2016.

Jinji N., Tanaka A., How Does UNESCO’s Convention on Cultural Diversity Affect Trade in Cultur­al Goods?, “Journal of Cultural Economics” 2020, Vol. 44.

Kessedjian C., Culture et droit – l’influence de la culture sur le droit international, in: P. Meerts (ed.), Culture and International Law, Hague Academic Press, The Hague 2008.

Khatami S.M., Dialogue Among Civilizations: Contexts and Perspectives, https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/dialogue-among-civilizations-contexts-and-perspectives  [ac­cessed: 24.09.2021].

Kugelmann D., Protection of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples Respecting Cultural Diversity, “Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law” 2007, Vol. 11.

Laghmani S., Droit international et diversité culturelle, “Revue Générale de Droit International Public” 2008, Vol. 112(2).

Lévi-Strauss C., Structural Anthropology, Basic Books, New York 1974.

Lixinski L., Cultural Heritage in International Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013.

Logan W., Cultural Diversity, Cultural Heritage and Human Rights: Towards Heritage Manage­ment as Human Rights-Based Cultural Practice, “International Journal of Heritage Stud­ies” 2012, Vol. 18.

Loop P., DeNicola P., You’ve Committed to Increasing Gender Diversity on Your Board. Here’s How to Make it Happen, “Harvard Business Review”, 18 February 2019, https://hbr.org/2019/02/youve-committed-to-increasing-gender-diversity-on-your-board-he­res-how-to-make-it-happen [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Matsuura K., L’enjeu culturel au coeur des relations internationales, “Politique étrangère” 2006, Vol. 4.

Messer E., Anthropology, Human Rights, and Social Transformation, in: M. Goodale (ed.), Hu­man Rights: An Anthropological Reader, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden 2009.

Morjin J., The Place of Cultural Rights in the WTO System, in: F. Francioni, M. Scheinin (eds.), Cultural Human Rights, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston 2008.

N’Daw A., Towards a Definition of Culture, in: Cultural Rights as Human Rights, UNESCO, Paris 1970.

Naylor L. (ed.), Problems and Issues of Diversity in the United States, Bergin & Garvey, West­port, CT 1999.

Neuwirth R.J., The Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions and its Impact on the “Culture and Trade Debate”: A Critical Evaluation After 5 Years, in: T. Kono, S. Van Uytsel (eds.), The UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: A Tale of Fragmen­tation in International Law, Intersentia, Antwerp 2012.

Neuwirth R.J., United in Divergency: A Commentary on the UNESCO Convention on the Protec­tion and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, “Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht” 2006, Vol. 66.

O’Keefe R., The “Right to Take Part in Cultural Life” under Article 15 of the ICESCR, “Internation­al and Comparative Law Quarterly” 1998, Vol. 47.

OECD, All Hands In? Making Diversity Work for All, 2 September 2020, https://www.oecd.org/social/all-hands-in-making-diversity-work-for-all-efb14583-en.htm [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Oster J., European and International Media Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2017.

Oswick C., Noon M., Discourses of Diversity, Equality and Inclusion: Trenchant Formulations or Transient Fashions?, “British Journal of Management” 2014, Vol. 25(1).

Ozgen C. et al., Does Cultural Diversity of Migrant Employees Affect Innovation?, “International Migration Review” 2014, Vol. 48.

Pentassuglia G., Protecting Minority Groups through Human Rights Courts: The Interpretive Role of European and Inter-American Jurisprudence, in: A.F. Vrdoljak (ed.), The Cultural Dimen­sion of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014.

Petito F., The Global Political Discourse of Dialogue among Civilizations: Mohammad Khatami, “Global Change, Peace & Security” 2007, Vol. 19(2).

Pineschi L., Cultural Diversity as a Human Right? General Comment No. 21 of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in: S. Borelli, F. Lenzerini (eds.), Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights, Cultural Diversity, Brill, Leiden 2012.

Polymenopoulou E., Cultural Rights in the Case-Law of the International Court of Justice, “Leid­en Journal of International Law” 2014, Vol. 27(2).

Polymenopoulou E., Expressing Dissent: Gag Laws, Human Rights Activism and the Right to Pro­test, “Florida Journal of International Law” 2021, Vol. 32(1).

Polymenopoulou E., Indigenous Cultural Heritage and Artistic Expressions: “Localizing” Intel­lectual Property Rights and UNESCO Claims, “Canadian Journal of Human Rights” 2017, Vol. 6(1).

Polymenopoulou E., Same-Sex Narratives and LGBTI Activism in the Muslim World, 18 May 2020, https://gjia.georgetown.edu/2020/05/18/same-sex-narratives-and-lgbti-activ­ism-in-muslim-world/ [accessed: 24.09.2021].

President of the United States, Executive Order on Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Acces­sibility in the Federal Workforce, 25 June 2021, https://www.whitehouse.gov/brief­ing-room/presidential-actions/2021/06/25/executive-order-on-diversity-equity-in­clusion-and-accessibility-in-the-federal-workforce/ [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Report of the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Re­lated Intolerance, Durban, 31 August – 8 September 2001, 25 January 2002, UN Doc. A/CONF.189/12.

Robertson K., New York Times Calls for Workplace Changes in Diversity Report, “New York Times”, 24 February 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/24/business/media/new-york-times-workplace-diversity.html [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Romainville C., Cultural Diversity as a Multilevel and Multifaceted Legal Notion Operating in the Law on Cultural Policies, “International Journal of Cultural Policy” 2016, Vol. 22(2).

Sandell R., Museums, Society, Inequality, Routledge, London 2002.

Scardigli V. (ed.), L’Europe de la diversité: la dynamique des identités régionales, CNRS, Paris 1993.

Schéré L., The Culture War: A Look at the Cultural Exception Principle in International Trade Law, “Fordham International Law Journal” 2017, Vol. 40.

Schorlemer S. von, Cultural Diversity, in: Max Planck Encyclopedias of International Law, Ox­ford University Press, Oxford 2017.

Shi J., Free Trade and Cultural Diversity in International Law, Hart, Oxford 2013.

Silvestri M., Gender Diversity: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back, “Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice” 2015, Vol. 9(1).

Stocking G. (ed.), A Franz Boas Reader: The Shaping of American Anthropology, 1883-1911, Uni­versity of Chicago Press, Chicago 1989.

Telleria J., What Does Culture Mean for the UNDP?, “Cultural Studies” 2015, Vol. 29(2).

The Yogyakarta Principles: Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in Relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, March 2007, https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/48244e602.pdf [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Thomas P., GATS and Trade in Audio-Visuals: Culture, Politics and Empire, “Economic and Polit­ical Weekly” 2003, Vol. 38(33).

Thornberry P., The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimina­tion: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2016.

Tylor E., Primitive Culture: Research into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom, J. Murray, London 1871.

UN General Assembly, Culture and Sustainable Development, 8 December 2015, UN Doc. A/C.2/70/L.59.

UN General Assembly, Draft Resolution Submitted by the President of the General Assembly: United against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, 16 Sep­tember 2011, UN Doc. A/66/L.2.

UN General Assembly, Outcome Document of the Durban Review Conference, adopted on 24 April 2009.

UN General Assembly, Resolution 53/22: United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilizations, 16 November 1998, UN Doc. A/RES/53/22.

UN General Assembly, Resolution 56/6: Global Agenda for Dialogue among Civilizations, 9 No­vember 2001, UN Doc. A/RES/56/6.

UN General Assembly, Resolution 60/1: 2005 World Summit Outcome, 24 October 2005, UN Doc. A/RES/60/1.

UN General Assembly, Resolution 60/167: Human Rights and Cultural Diversity, 7 March 2006, UN Doc. A/RES/60/167.

UN General Assembly, Resolution 62/155: Human Rights and Cultural Diversity, 7 March 2008, UN Doc. A/RES/62/155.

UN General Assembly, Resolution 70/1: Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustaina­ble Development, 21 October 2015, UN Doc. A/RES/70/1.

UN General Assembly, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2 Octo­ber 2007, UN Doc. A/RES/61/295.

UN General Assembly, Universality, Cultural Diversity and Cultural Rights, 25 July 2018, UN Doc. A/73/227.

UNDP, Human Development Report 1995, Oxford University Press, New York–Oxford 1995.

UNDP, Human Development Report 2003: Millennium Development Goals – A Compact Among Nations to End Human Poverty, Oxford University Press, New York–Oxford 2003.

UNDP, Human Development Report 2004: Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World, UNDP, New York 2004.

UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Nat­ural Heritage, Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Con­vention, 10 July 2019, WHC.19/01.

UNESCO World Report: Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue, UNESCO, Paris 2009, https://en.unesco.org/interculturaldialogue/resources/130 [accessed: 24.09.2021].

UNESCO, Mexico City Declaration on Cultural Policies, World Conference on Cultural Policies, Mexico City, 26 July – 6 August 1982.

UNESCO, Operational Guidelines on the Implementation of the Convention in the Digital En­vironment, June 2017, https://en.unesco.org/creativity/node/13628 [accessed: 24.09.2021].

UNESCO, Our Creative Diversity: Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development, UNESCO, Paris 1996, UNESCO Doc. CLT-96/WS-6.

UNESCO, Re|shaping Cultural Policies: Advancing Creativity for Development: Monitoring the 2005 UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Ex­pressions, UNESCO, Paris 2018.

Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 2 November 2001, http://www.un-documents.net/udcd.htm [accessed: 24.09.2021].

Voon T., Culture, Human Rights, and the WTO, in: A.F. Vrdoljak (ed.), The Cultural Dimension of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014.

Voon T., UNESCO and the WTO: A Clash of Cultures?, “International and Comparative Law Quarterly” 2006, Vol. 55(3).

Vrdoljak A.F., Liberty, Equality, Diversity: States, Cultures, and International Law, in: A.F. Vrdol­jak (ed.), The Cultural Dimension of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014.

Wendland W., Intellectual Property and the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expressions, in: B. Hoffman (ed.), Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy and Practice, Cam­bridge University Press, Cambridge 2006.

Wintemute R., Accommodating Religious Beliefs: Harm, Clothing or Symbols, and Refusals to Serve Others, “Modern Law Review” 2014, Vol. 77.

WIPO, Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, Fifth Session, Geneva, July 7 to 15, 2003, 2 May 2003, WIPO/ GRTKF/IC/5/3.

World Trade Organization, Canada – Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals, 30 June 1997, WT/DS31/AB/R.

World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development: Global Report 2017/2018, UNESCO, Paris 2018.

Xanthaki A., Culture, in: M. Weller, J. Hohmann (eds.), The UN Declaration on the Rights of In­digenous Peoples: A Commentary, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2017.

Xanthaki A., Multiculturalism and International Law: Discussing Universal Standards, “Human Rights Quarterly” 2010, Vol. 32.

Yusuf A., Diversity of Legal Traditions and International Law: Keynote Address, “Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law” 2013, Vol. 2(4).

Zampetti A.B., Entrenching Sustainable Human Development in the Design of the Global Agenda after 2015, “Denver Journal of International Law & Policy” 2020, Vol. 43(3).

Czasopismo Open Access.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.

Pierwotną formą czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.