Koncepcja praw noachickich w Sefer ha-chinuch

Piotr Majdanik



Sefer ha-chinuch is one of the earliest and most interesting works created after Maimonides which deal more broadly with the issue of Noahide laws (laws given according to the Judaic tradition to all humanity). The purpose of the article is to present the original views of the author of this book on the issue of seven Noahide laws, and in particular on their relations to the 613 commandments of Israel. Discussion on the Noahide laws in Sefer ha-chinuch is not organized in a systematic way. The originality and value of this work lies, firstly, in the very approach to this topic in a general way (the inspiration was certainly Maimonides); secondly, in the concept of Noahide laws as categories, the details of which are comparable, although not identical, to the Israeli commandments. This concept resulted in an innovative construction involving the incorporation of the Noahide commandments into a discussion on individual Israeli commandments. Thirdly, the originality of the work is manifested also in certain halachic concepts concerning aspects of specific Noahide laws, often departing from Maimonides’ solutions.

Słowa kluczowe: prawa noachickie, Sefer ha-chinuch, halacha, 613 micwot / Noahide laws, Halachah, 613 mitzvot

1. Źródła opublikowane

Mosze ben Majmon, Miszne Tora, t. 1–12, red. Shabtai Frankel, Jeruszalajim 1973–2007.

Sefer ha-chinuch im beur Minchat chinuch, t. 1–3, Jeruszalajim 2008–2009.

2. Opracowania

Levine Samuel J., An Introduction to Self-Incrimination in Jewish Law, with Application to the American Legal System: A Psychological and Philosophical Analysis, „Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review” 28 (2006), nr 2.

Lewis Elchanan, Sefer ha-chinuch, [dostęp: 8 września 2018].

Lichtenstein Aaron, The Seven Laws of Noah, New York 1995.

Majdanik Piotr, „Minchat chinuch” Josefa Babada z Tarnopola – galicyjska perła halachy, [w:] Z dziejów i kultury Żydów w Galicji, red. Michał Galas, Wacław Wierzbieniec, Rzeszów 2018.

Metzger David, Sefer ha-chinuch u-mechabro, [w:] Sefer ha-chinuch im beur Minchat chinuch, t. 1, Jeruszalajim 2008–2009.

Novak David, The Image of the Non-Jew in Judaism: An Historical and Constructive Study of the Noahide Laws, New York–Toronto 1983.

Schumann Andrew, Logika Talmudu, Kraków 2015.

Ta-Shma Israel, Mechabro ha-amiti szel Sefer ha-chinuch, „Kirjat Sefer” 55 (1980).

Tarjag micwot. 613 przykazań judaizmu, tłum. Ewa Gordon, Kraków 2000.

Weiner Moshe, The Divine Code, Pittsburgh 2018.