Kobiece micwot – rola i pozycja kobiety w świetle religijnego prawa żydowskiego

Szoszana Keller

Abstrakt

Women’s Mitzvot: The Role and Position of Women in the Light of the Jewish Religious Law

It is not possible to understand the history and present day of Jewish women without placing them in the Jewish tradition, resulting mainly from religion which for centuries was the foundation of Jewish life, regulating its finest aspects. The article describes how the regulations of the religious Jewish law, halakha, determine the place of Jewish women in traditional society, and how the resulting adjustments relate to Jews according to gender. The analysis covers three so-called special women’s mitzvot, i.e. the lighting of the Sabbath lights, the separation of the challah, and the observance of the laws related to the family purity, as well as the resulting positioning of women within a clear apportionment into female−male, public−domestic, or culture−nature.

Słowa kluczowe: prawo żydowskie, kobiety, Żydówki, micwot, judaizm, ortodoksja, Jewish law, women, Jewish women, mitzvot, Judaism, orthodoxy
References

1. Źródła opublikowane

Biblia Tysiąclecia. Pismo Święte Starego i Nowego Testamentu, Poznań 2019.

Sefaria: A Living Library of Jewish Texts, https://www.sefaria.org/ [dostęp: 4 kwietnia 2021], z tej strony internetowej wykorzystano następujące teksty:

Abudarham Dawid ben Josef, Sefer Abudarham,

Bartenura Owadja ben Awraham, Komentarze do Miszny,

Dancig Awraham ben Jechiel Michael, Chajej Adam,

Falk Joszua ben Aleksander ha-kohen, Perisza,

Gombiner Awraham Abele, Magen Awraham,

Jaakow ben Aszer, Arbaa turim,

Josef Chajim z Bagdadu, Ben Jehojada,

Karo Josef, Bejt Josef,

Karo Josef, Szulchan aruch,

Miszna,

Mosze ben Jisrael Iserl, Mapa –komentarze do Szulchan aruch,

Mosze ben Majmon (Rambam), Miszne Tora,

Mosze ben Majmon (Rambam), Sefer ha-micwot,

Mosze ben Nachman (Ramban), Milchamot ha-Szem,

Szlomo ben Jicchak (Raszi), Komentarze do Talmudu,

Szlomo ben Jicchak (Raszi), Responsa,

Talmud babiloński,

Tanach,

Tosefta.

Szneur Zalman z Ladów, Szulchan aruch ha-raw, na podstawie edycji: Shulchan Aruch: The Code of Jewish Law of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, The Weiss edition, https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/3127874/jewish/Shulchan-Aruch-Harav.htm [dostęp: 6 kwietnia 2021].

2. Opracowania

Adler Rachel, Tum’ah and Taharah: Ends and Beginnings, [w:] The Jewish Woman: New Perspectives, red. Elizabeth Koltun, New York 1976.

Berman Saul J., The Status of Women in Halakhic Judaism, „Tradition” 14 (1973), nr 2.

Biale Rachel, Women and Jewish Law: An Exploration of Women’s Issue in Halakhic Sources, New York 1984.

Frimer Aryeh, Women and Minyan, „Tradition” 23 (1988), nr 4.

Greenwald Zew, Bramy halachy. Religijne prawo żydowskie, red. Sacha Pecaric, tłum. Joanna Białek, Kraków 2005.

Rothstein Gidon, Women’s Aliyyot in Contemporary Synagogues, „Tradition” 39 (2005), nr 2.

Spain Daphne, Gendered Spaces and Women’s Status, „Sociological Theory” 11 (1993), nr 2.

Zlochower Devorah, May Woman Touch a Torah Scroll?, New York 2008.