Explicit Import Revisited: A Critical Appraisal of Explicatures

Maria Jodłowiec

Abstrakt

Głównym celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie argumentów za tym, że modelowanie treści przekazywanych wprost w komunikacji werbalnej w najważniejszych teoriach pragmatycznych jest obarczone wadami. Przyjmuje się w nich, że odbiór treści komunikowanych eksplicytnie polega na pragmatycznym wzbogaceniu odkodowanej formy logicznej wypowiedzi do uzyskania pełnej formy propozycjonalnej, o określonych warunkach prawdziwości. Ten rodzaj wzmocnienia, związany z dodawaniem materiału pojęciowego do niedookreślonej formy logicznej zdania, nie odzwierciedla adekwatnie praktyki komunikacyjnej i prowadzi do wielu komplikacji na poziomie teorii. Czerpiąc z wcześniejszej krytyki pojęcia eksplikatury, ukazanej w pracach Borg (2016) i Jary’ego (2016), artykuł przedstawia dodatkowe argumenty przeciwko modelowaniu treści przekazywanych wprost w sposób, w jaki robią to czołowe koncepcje pragmatyczne. Podkreśla się, że wiarygodna poznawczo teoria komunikacji werbalnej powinna właściwie oddawać naturę procesów przekazywania i odbioru znaczeń, a proponowane instrumentarium teoretyczne nie może ich zniekształcać.

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this paper is to argue that the way explicitly communicated content is approached in leading pragmatic theories is flawed, since it is posited that explicature generation involves pragmatic enrichment of the decoded logical form of the utterance to full propositionality. This kind of enhancement postulated to underlie explicature generation appears to be theoretically inadequate and not to correspond to the psychological reality of utterance interpretation. Drawing on earlier critique of extant pragmatic positions on explicatures, mainly by Borg (2016) and Jary (2016), I add further arguments against modelling explicitly communicated import in the way leading verbal communication frameworks do. It is emphasized that the cognitively plausible theory of communicated meaning is compromised at the cost of theory-internal concerns.

Słowa kluczowe: explicature, impliciture, utterance interpretation, pragmatic enrichment, explicit-implicit distinction, contextual cognitive fix, eksplikatura, implikatura, rozumienie wypowiedzi, wzbogacenie pragmatyczne, warstwa eksplicytna i implicytna wypowiedzi, mechanizm kontekstowego zogniskowania poznawczego
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