Ludność cywilna polskiego Lwowa wobec walk polsko‑ukraińskich w listopadzie 1918 r.

Romuald Rydz

Abstrakt

The civilian population of Polish Lviv in the face of Polish‑Ukrainian fights in November 1918

The Battle of Lwów in November 1918 is considered one of the most important events of the Polish‑Ukrainian War, which subject was the possession of the Eastern Galicia. In contrast to most of the existing studies devoted to the conflict, the article attempts to scrutinize the attitudes of the Polish population of Lwów towards street fights. Although in such circumstances, the boundary between civilians and soldiers were often smooth, many sources indicate that a significant part of the city’s Polish community were passive. Such behaviors, though should not be identified with the acceptance of the Ukrainian governments in Lwów, contributed to the extension of the fights and made their result uncertain. It seems that, contrary to the common assessment, the Polish reactions were diverse and subject to the influence of many occurrences. In particular, they were shaped by earlier Polish‑Ukrainian relations, the involvement in the independence movement, the fatigue of the experience of the Great War, the intensity of street skirmishes, the actions of the Ukrainian and the Polish military and political management, the material poverty, the plague of crime and the prolonged expectations for a relief. As a result, it can be considered that the Polish success was a work of, diverse in a social origin, the groups of insurgents and the Polish units, which arrived from the Western Galicia, supported only by the part of the civilian inhabitants of Lwów.

Słowa kluczowe: bitwa o Lwów w 1918 r., konflikt polsko‑ukraiński w Galicji po I wojnie światowej, walki o granice II Rzeczypospolitej, społeczeństwo polskie wobec odzyskania niepodległości