Twierdze na straży lojalności. Brytyjskie fortyfikacje na terenie północnej Szkocji w pierwszej połowie XVIII w.

Maciej Trąbski

Abstrakt

Fortresses as a guarantee of loyalty. British fortifications in the area of northern Scotland in the first half of the 18th century

In the first half of the 18th century, the Scottish Highlands were a “wild and inaccessible” area, and from London’s perspective, they were at least uncertain as far as local inhabitants’ loyalty was concerned. The Highlands were controlled by clans, who cultivated social and economic traditions dating back to the mediaeval times. Despite it being anachronistic, this system made it possible to gather significant forces, not so well armed, but usually strongly motivated. Although some clan leaders quickly backed William of Orange, and what follows the Hanoverian dynasty, state forces were not able to control the whole area of the Highlands. What is more, strategic territories on the western coast and in Great Glen were occupied by pro‑Jacobean clans. Due to that fact, the authorities were forced to introduce military garrisons into the Highlands that were supposed to force all the inhabitants to be loyal to the government. However, soldiers had to stay in safe conditions so that they could defend themselves in case Scottish Jacobites attacked them, especially if the latter were backed by the regular French military forces. That is why the first fortress started to be built already during the uprising of 1689. Finally, up to 1745, 3 fortress and 4 fortified barrack complexes were erected in the area of the Highlands.

Słowa kluczowe: Szkockie Wyżyny, twierdze, koszary warowne, garnizony wojskowe

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Historica Gedanensia" jest wersją pierwotną.