Lojalność i zdrada dowódców oraz dostojników w imperium Achemenidów za panowania Wielkiego Króla Artakserksesa II

Michał Podrazik

Abstrakt

Loyalty and betrayal of commanders and dignitaries in the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Artaxerxes II

During the long reign of the Great King Artaxerxes II (404–359 BC) there was a number of events very interesting for the research on the subject of loyalty and betrayal. Shortly after Artaxerxes took the Achaemenid throne, his younger brother Cyrus, called the Younger, revolted against him. Cyrus was the ruler and commander‑in‑chief in Anatolia and it was the region where he revolted. While keeping his revolt secret, he did not reveal his disloyalty towards the King. After gathering the army he marched against Artaxerxes to overthrow him. In the battle fought at Cunaxa, near Babylon, Artaxerxes won the victory while Cyrus died in the battle (401 BC).
Among Cyrus’ followers in his expedition against the King were, among others, Orontas and Ariaeus. Orontas was subordinate of Cyrus, who previously revolted against him in Anatolia and then returned to his favors, while during the expedition against the King was accused of plotting against Cyrus for Artaxerxes. As a result he was executed in Cyrus’ camp. Ariaeus too was Cyrus’ subordinate and he commanded part of his army at Cunaxa. Soon after the battle ended he made an agreement with Tissaphernes, one of the commanders of Artaxerxes’ army, and joined the King’s camp. Tissaphernes, in turn, 52 Michał Podrazik distinguished himself in his invariably loyalty to the King, but some years later (395 BC) was executed by the King’s order.
In the 360s against Artaxerxes revolted a number of commanders and dignitaries in Anatolia. There were Datames, Ariobarzanes and Orontas. During Datames’ warfare, he was betrayed by his father‑in‑law and commander of his cavalry Mithrobarzanes, and then by his oldest son Sysinas, who both joined Artaxerxes’ camp. Ariobarzanes, in turn, was left by his son Mithridates, who betrayed him to the King. As regards Orontas, after he had revolted against Artaxerxes, he betrayed to him those who revolted with him, demonstrating his loyalty to the monarch.
All the abovementioned data, taken together, provide a good insight into the subject of loyalty and betrayal in the Achaemenid Empire, allowing us to better known and understand the subject.

Słowa kluczowe: imperium Achemenidów, Artakserkses II, dowódcy i dostojnicy, lojalność, zdrada

Redakcja deklaruje, że wersja papierowa czasopisma naukowego "Studia
Historica Gedanensia" jest wersją pierwotną.