William Sayers


Difficulties in tracing the etymology of lexical isolates and loans from other languages are exemplified in the discussion of a gathering of English words previously without satisfactory explanations of origin. In particular, recognition of the adstratum effects of the Irish language on British English over several centuries prompts a call not only for numerous revisions to entries in our standard lexicographical reference works but for a fundamental rethinking of relations between these multiply overlapping speech communities.

Słowa kluczowe: English etymology, lexical transfers, balderdash, gander, gawk, hurdy-gurdy, shenanigan, snook

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Burney F. 1988. The early journals and letters of Fanny Burney. [vol. 1: 1768–1773]. Oxford.

Cassidy D. 2007. How the Irish invented slang: The secret language of the crossroads. Petrolia (Ca).

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Clemens S. 1917. Mark Twain’s letters. [ed. by Paine A.; 2 vols.]. New York.

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Cumberland M. 1959. Murmurs in the rue Morgue. London.

Darlington T. 1887. The folk-speech of South Cheshire. London.

De Long E. 1930 = California Historical Society Quarterly 9. [journal].

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Dinneen P. (ed.). 1927. Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla. An Irish-English dictionary. Dublin.

Douglas G. 1957–1964. Virgil’s Aeneid translated into Scottish Verse by Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld. [ed. by Coldwell D.; 4 vols.]. Edinburgh.

Fowler J. (ed.). 1878. Chartularium abbathiae de Novo monasterio, Ordinis cisterciensis, fundatae anno M.C. XXXVII. Durham.

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Kjellman H. (ed.). 1935. La vie seint Edmund le Rei. Göteborg.

Köbler G. (ed.). 1993. Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch. [4th edition; http://www.koeblergerhard.de/ahdwbhin.html].

Luxborough H. 1775. Letters written by the late Right Honourable Lady Luxborough, to Wil­liam Shenstone, Esq. London.

Marvell A. 1674. The rehearsall transpros’d: The second part. London.

Miège G. (ed.). 1687. The great French dictionary. London.

Nevalainen T. 1999. Early Modern English lexis and semantics. – Lass R. (ed.). The Cambridge history of the English language. [vol. 3]. Cambridge: 332–458.

O’Hara K. 1764. Midas: An English burletta. London.

Opie I., Opie P. 1977. Oxford dictionary of nursery rhymes. [2nd edition]. Oxford.

OED = Oxford English Dictionary. [online version]. 1989–2014. Oxford. [http://www.oed.com/].

Palgrave F. (ed.). 1837. Documents and records illustrating the history of Scotland. London.

Rothwell W. et al. (eds.). 2005. Anglo-Norman dictionary. [2nd edition]. London.

Sayers W. 2002. Malarkey and its etymology. – Western Folklore 66: 209–12.

Sayers W. 2007. Moniker: Etymology and lexicographical history. – Miscelénea 35: 91–97.

Sayers W. 2008. Contested etymologies of some English words in the popular register. – Studia Neophilologica 80: 15–29.

Sayers W. 2010a. Some ‘Alsatian’ etymologies from eighteenth-century London. – Notes and Queries 57: 79–83.

Sayers W. 2010b. Some disputed etymologies: Kidney, piskie/pixie, tatting, and slang. – Notes and Queries 57: 172–79.

Skelton J. 1843. Image ipocrysy –The poetical works of John Skelton. [ed. by Dyce A.]. London.

Spirit of the age. 1857. Sacramento (Ca).

Town talk. 1855. San Francisco.

Wright J. (ed.). 1898–1905. English dialect dictionary. London, New York.

Wynne F.E. 1935–1940. The Wynne diaries, 1789–1820. [ed. by Fremantle A.; 3 vols.]. London.

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