Access to Health Care for English Division Students of the Medical University of Warsaw

Maria Strzemieczna,

Mikołaj Pawlak,

Jacek Imiela,

Magdalena Lorkowska

Abstrakt

Foreigners face certain barriers in accessing medical care, though international medical students are in many aspects privileged in this field. The aim of this study is to explore whether these students are facing problems in accessing healthcare. An original survey questionnaire was prepared and distributed online and on paper among students. In total 138 questionnaires were filled out. The results were analyzed using statistical methods. The main barriers faced by students are the lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language problems. The study shows there is a need to start working on institutional solutions to provide information about access to healthcare and to overcome language barriers in healthcare institutions. 

* The article is part of a research project financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. / Pracę wykonano w ramach Projektu Badawczego, finansowanego ze środków dotacji celowej MNiSzW.

Słowa kluczowe: International students, immigrants, health care barriers, health seeking behaviours
References

Bell, D., Holliday, R., Ormond, M., & Mainil, T. (2015). Transnational healthcare, cross-border perspectives. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 124, 284–289.

Betancourt, J. R., Green, A. R., Carrillo, J. E., & Owusu Ananeh-Firempong, I. I. (2016). Defining cultural competence: A practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Reports.

Burgess, D.J., Nelson, D.B., Gravely, A.A., et al. (2014). Racial differences in prescription of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain in a national sample of veterans. The Journal of Pain. 15(4):447–455.

Constant, A. F., García-Muñoz, T., Neuman, S., & Neuman, T. (2018). A ‘healthy immigrant effect’ or a ‘sick immigrant effect’? Selection and policies matter. The European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care, 19(1), 103–121.

Czapka, E. A., & Sagbakken, M. (2016). ‘Where to find those doctors?’ A qualitative study on barriers and facilitators in access to and utilization of health care services by Polish migrants in Norway. BMC Health Services Research, 16, 460.

Dąbrowska, K. (2008). W jakim kierunku zmierzają relacje pomiędzy lekarzem a pacjentem w Polsce? Pediatria i Medycyna Rodzinna, 4(4), 278–281.

Eissler, L. A., & Casken, J. (2013). Seeking Health Care Through International Medical Tourism. Journal of Nursing Scholarship : An Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing / Sigma Theta Tau, 45.

European Consortium for Emergency Contraception. (2018). Retrieved 21 June 2018, from ECEC website: http://www.ec-ec.org/emergency-contraception-in-europe/country-by-country-infor­mation-2/norway/

Głodowska, K., & Bendowska, A. (2016). Transkulturowa opieka medyczna niezbędnym element­em w programach nauczania na uniwersytetach medycznych w Polsce. In Pacjent ‘inny’ wyzwaniem opieki medycznej (pp. 791–798). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Silva rerum.

Główny Urząd Statystyczny. (2017). Szkoły wyższe i ich finanse w 2016 r. Warszawa.

Hnilicová, H., & Dobiásová, K. (2011). Migrants’ Health and Access to Healthcare in the Czech Republic. Central European Journal of Public Health, 19(3), 134.

Hsieh, E., & Kramer, E. M. (2012). Medical interpreters as tools: Dangers and challenges in the utilitarian approach to interpreters’ roles and functions. Patient Education and Counseling, 89(1), 158–162.

Iwanowicz, E. (2009). „Health literacy” jako jedno ze współczesnych wyzwań zdrowia publicz­nego. Medycyna Pracy, 60(5), 427–437.

Jabłecka, B. (2012). Strukturalne i kulturowe bariery w dostępie imigrantów do ochrony zdrowia. Instytut Spraw Publicznych.

Jaroszewska, E. (2013). Migracje a zdrowie. Uwarunkowania kondycji zdrowotnej migrantów oraz bariery w korzystaniu z opieki medycznej. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Aspra-JR.

Kangas, B. (2010). Traveling for Medical Care in a Global World. Medical Anthropology, 29(4), 344–362.

Kickbusch, I., Pelikan, J. M., Apfel, F., Tsouros, A. D., & World Health Organization (Eds.). (2013). Health literacy: The solid facts. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.

Kramer, A.-M. (2005). Gender, nation and the abortion debate in the Polish media. In Nation and Gender in Contemporary Europe (pp. 130–148). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ku, L., & Flores, G. (2005). Pay now or pay later: Providing interpreter services in health care. Health Affairs, 24(2), 435–444.

Li, S., Gerwing, J., Krystallidou, D., Rowlands, A., Cox, A., & Pype, P. (2017). Interaction–A missing piece of the jigsaw in interpreter-mediated medical consultation models. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(9), 1769–1771.

Lindholm, M., Hargraves, J. L., Ferguson, W. J., & Reed, G. (2012). Professional language inter­pretation and inpatient length of stay and readmission rates. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27(10), 1294–1299.

MacKian, S. (2003). A review of health seeking behaviour: Problems and prospects. Health Systems Development Programme.

Main, I. (2014). Medical Travels of Polish Female Migrants in Europe. Sociologicky Casopis, 50(6), 897–918.

Majda, A., & Zalewska-Puchała, J. (2011). Wrażliwość międzykulturowa w opiece pielęgniarskiej. Problemy Pielęgniarstwa, 19(2), 253–258.

Markides, K. S., & Eschbach, K. (2011). Hispanic paradox in adult mortality in the United States. In International handbook of adult mortality (pp. 227–240). Springer.

Moullan, Y., & Jusot, F. (2014). Why is the ‘healthy immigrant effect’ different between European countries? European Journal of Public Health, 24 Suppl 1, 80–86.

Nelson, A. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the National Medical Association, 94(8), pp. 666–668.

Osipovič, D. (2013). ‘If I get ill, It’s onto the plane, and off to Poland.’use of health care services by Polish migrants in London. Central and Eastern European Migration Review, 2(2), 98–114.

Priebe, S., Sandhu, S., Dias, S., Gaddini, A., Greacen, T., Ioannidis, E., Bogic, M. (2011). Good practice in health care for migrants: Views and experiences of care professionals in 16 Eu­ropean countries. BMC Public Health, 11(1), https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-11-187#citeas.

Purnell, L. D. (2009). Guide to culturally competent health care (2nd ed). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.

Razum, O., & Twardella, D. (2002). Time travel with Oliver Twist – Towards an explanation for a paradoxically low mortality among recent immigrants. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 7(1), 4–10.

Razum, O., Zeeb, H., Akgün, H. S., & Yilmaz, S. (1998). Low overall mortality of Turkish residents in Germany persists and extends into a second generation: Merely a healthy migrant effect? Tropical Medicine & International Health, 3(4), 297–303.

Rechel, B., Mladovsky, P., Ingleby, D., Mackenbach, J. P., & McKee, M. (2013). Migration and health in an increasingly diverse Europe. The Lancet, 381(9873), 1235–1245.

Scheppers, E., van Dongen, E., Dekker, J., Geertzen, J., & Dekker, J. (2006). Potential barriers to the use of health services among ethnic minorities: A review. Family Practice, 23(3), 325–348.

Siwińska, B. (2017). Study in Poland. Studenci zagraniczni w Polsce 2017. Fundacja Edukacyjna „Perspektywy”.

Squires, A. (2018). Strategies for overcoming language barriers in healthcare. Nursing Manage­ment, 49(4), 20–27.

Stan, S. (2015). Transnational healthcare practices of Romanian migrants in Ireland: Inequalities of access and the privatisation of healthcare services in Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 346–355.

Staton, L. J., Panda, M., Chen, I., Genao, I., Kurz, J., Pasanen, M., Cykert, S. (2007). When race matters: Disagreement in pain perception between patients and their physicians in primary care. Journal of the National Medical Association, 99(5), 532–538.

Szelawa, D. (2017). Prawa reprodukcyjne w Europie i w Polsce: Zakaz, kompromis czy wybór? Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Przedstawicielstwo w Polsce wspólnie z Fundacją Międzynarodowe Centrum Badań i Analiz (ICRA).

Thompson, A. E., Anisimowicz, Y., Miedema, B., Hogg, W., Wodchis, W. P., & Aubrey-Bassler, K. (2016). The influence of gender and other patient characteristics on health care-seeking behaviour: A QUALICOPC study. BMC Family Practice, 17(1), 38.

Whittaker, A., Manderson, L., & Cartwright, E. (2010). Patients without borders: Understanding medical travel. Medical Anthropology, 29(4), 336–343.

Włodarczyk, D., Łazarewicz, M., & Winiarska, A. (2015). Medical University of Warsaw Interna­tional Students’ Satisfaction, Needs and Well-Being– SUPP Study 2015. Warsaw.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.