Support Online: Case of Russian-speaking Women’s Online Network in Warsaw

Kseniya Homel

Abstrakt

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanisms of online networking and exchange of social support among members of a migrant virtual group of Russian-speaking women in Poland on Facebook. The research was based on content analysis and non-participant observation during two weeks in November and December 2019. I also had two online conversations with the moderator of the group based on a prepared list of questions. It appeared, that members of the group used networking to improve communication on a wide range of issues. Conversations available online provide insight on how migration determines daily issues and social life but also as a source of socially-reproducing precarity. Informality as a social model of inter-group relations prevails among members of the Russian-speaking community. Four main types of social support emerged from communication on the forum – informational, instrumental, emotional and community building. Russian-speaking women use Facebook group to share information, empower each other, boost self-esteem and find companionship. The findings allow to consider the role of the online group as a complementary mechanism for adaptation and improvement of well-being of migrants in Poland.

Słowa kluczowe: migration, female, adaptation, social support, networking, migrant network, Facebook
References
Adamson, Fiona B, 2016, The Growing Importance of Diaspora Politics, Current History (New York, N.Y.: 1941) 115((784)).
 
Aliyev, Huseyn, 2015, Post-Soviet informality: Towards theory-building, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 35(3/4).
 
Andrejuk, Katarzyna, 2015, Bycie imigrantką jako zasób i jako bariera. Prowadzenie działalności gospodarczej w Polsce w narracjach imigrantek z krajów byłego ZSRR, Studia Socjologiczne.
 
Andrejuk, Katarzyna, 2018, Entrepreneurial strategies as a response to discrimination: Experience of Ukrainian women in Poland from the intersectional perspective, Anthropological Notebooks 24(3).
 
Bambina, Antonina, 2007, Online Social Support. The Interplay of Social Networks and Computer-mediated Communication, New York: Cambria Press.
 
Bourdieu, Pierre, 1986, The Forms of Capital, [in]: Handbook of Theory and Reaserch for the Socjology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press.
 
Brown, Jo, Amanda J. Broderick, Nick, Lee, 2007, Word of Mouth Communication Within Online Communities: Conceptualizing the Online Social Network, Journal of Interactive Marketing 21(3).
 
Byrne, Donn Erwin, 1971, The attraction paradigm, Academic Press.
 
Coulson, Neil, 2005, Receiving Social Support Online: An Analysis of a Computer-Mediated Support Group for Individuals Living with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Cyberpsychology & Behavior 8(6).
 
Coulson, Neil, Aimee Aubeeluck, Heather Buchanan, 2007, Social Support in cyberspace: A content analysis of communication within a Huntington’s diseases online support group, Patient Education and Couseling (68):173–78.
 
Dekker, Rainne, Godfried Engbersen, 2014, How social media transform migrant networks and facilitate migration, Global Networks 14(4):401–418.
 
Dolińska, Anna, 2017, Wysoko wykwalifikowane migrantki z Ukrainy i Białorusi na pierwotnym rynku pracy w Polsce – przyczynek do badań, Studia Humanistyczne AGH 16(1).
 
Dolińska, Anna, 2019, The Gender-Related Lifestyle Changes and Choices of Female White-Collar Migrants from Ukraine, Belarus and Russia in Poland, Central and Eastern European Migration Review 8(2):123–144.
 
Drentea, Patricia, Jennifer L. Moren-Cross, 2005, Social capital and social support on the web: the case of an internet mother site, Sociology of Health & Illness 920–42.
 
Ejiogu, Chibuzo, 2018, Precariousness in Unlikely Places: The Role of High-Skilled Migrant Worker Networks in Resisting and Reproducing Precarity, [in]: Migration, Work and Employment Perspectives, London: ECPR Press/ Rowman & Littlefield International.
 
Erdem, Bora, 2018, How Can Social Media Be Helpful for Immigrants to Integrate Society in the US, European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 3(3).
 
Fedyuk, Olena, 2016, The Gender Perspective in Ukrainian Migration. IMISCOE Research Series.
 
Glanz, Karen, Rimer, Barbara K., 2008, Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research, and Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 
Grabowska-Lusinska Izabela, Jazwinska Ewa, 2009, Znaczenie migracji w życiu zawodowym kobiet i mężczyzn, Kultura i Społeczeństwo 57(3).
 
Granovetter, Mark S. 1973, The Strength of Weak Ties, American Journal of Sociology 78(6):1360–80.
 
Hepp, Andreas, Cigdem Bozdag, Suna Laura, 2012, Mediatized migrants: Media cultures and communicative networking in the diaspora, [in]: Migrations, Diaspora, and Information Technology in Global Societies, (ed.): Fortunati Leopoldina, Pertierra Raul, Routledge.
 
Honga, Yan, Peña-Purcell, Ninfa, Orya, Marcia G., 2012, Outcomes of online support and resources for cancer survivors: A systematic literature review, Patient Education and Counseling 86(3).
 
Hsiao, Joey Chiao-Yin, Dillahunt, 2018,Technology to Support Immigrant Access to Social Capital and Adaptation to a New Country, ACM on Human-Computer Interaction.
 
Iglicka, Krystyna, Gmaj, Katarzyna, Bąbiak, Iwona, 2013, Integracja imigrantek – żon polskich obywateli, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar
 
Kaptein, Maurits, Castaneda, Deonne, Fernandez, Nicole, Nass, Clifford, 2014, Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect: The Effects of When-Similarity in Computer-Mediated Communication, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 19(3).
 
Kindler, Marta, 2012, A Risky Business? Ukrainian Migrant Women in Warsaw’s Domestic Work Sector. Amsterdam University Press. Amsterdam.
 
Kindler, Marta, Szulecka, Monika, 2014, The economic integration of Ukrainian and Vietnamese migrant women in the polish labour market, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(4).
 
Kindler, Marta, Szulecka, Monika, Kordasiewicz, Anna, 2016, Care needs and migration for domestic work: Ukraine-Poland, Global Action Programme on Migrant Domestic Workers and their Families An ILO/UE project.
 
Kindler, Marta, Wójciekowska-Baniak, Katarzyna, 2019, (Missing) Bridging Ties and Social Capital? The Creation and Reproduction of Migrants’ Social Network Advantages: The case of Ukrainian Migrants in Poland, Central and Eastern European Migration Review 8(1):95–116.
 
Komito, Lee, 2011, Social media and migration: Virtual community 2.0, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62(6).
 
Komito, Lee, Bates, Jessica, 2011, Migrantsʼ information practices and use of social media in Ireland: networks and community, iConference ’11.
 
Krajewska, Anna, 2012, Polityka braku polityki: imigrantki w polskim sektorze opieki nad osobami starszymi, Social Sciences 13(1).
 
Krzystek, Karolina, 2007, Integration of Female Immigrants Into Labour Market and Society. Policy Assessment and Policy Recommendations – Research Communiqué, Przegląd Polonijny 33(2 (124)).
 
Lin, Nan, 2001, Social Capital, Cambrigde University Press.
 
Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik, Deters Fenne grosse, 2016, Facebook friends, subjective well-being, social support, and personality, Computers in Human Behavior 55.
 
Malecki, Christine Kerres, Demaray Michelle Kilpatrick, 2003, What Type of Support Do They Need? Investigating Student Adjustment as Related to Emotional, Informational, Appraisal, and Instrumental Support, School Psychology Quarterly 18(3).
 
Massey, Douglas S., Arango, Joaquin, Graeme, Hugo, Kouaouci, Ali, Taylor, Edward J., 1998, Worlds in motion: Understanding international migration at the end of the millennium. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
 
McPherson, Miller, Smith-Lovin, Lynn, Cook , James M., Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks, Annual Review of Sociology 27:415–44.
 
Miyata, Kakuko, 2002, Social Support for Japanese Mothers Online and Offline, The Internet In Every Day Life. Blackwell Publisher.
 
Okólski, Marek, 2010, Will Poland become a coutry of immigration? (Czy Polska stanie sie krajem imigracyjnym?), Studia Migracyjne – Przeglad Polonijny 36(4).
 
Okólski, Marek, Wach Dominik, 2020, Immigration and Integration policies in the abscence of immigrant: a case study of Poland, [in]: Relations between Immigration and Integration Policies in Europe, (ed.) Duszczyk, Maciej, Pachocka, Marta, Pszczółkowska, Dominika, Routledge.
 
Praszałowicz, Dorota, 2008, Polskie studia na temat migracji kobiet: wybrane perspektywy teoretyczne i wyniki badań. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
 
Ryan, Louise, Mulholland Jon, 2014, French connections: the networking strategies of French highly skilled migrants in London, Global Networks 14(2).
 
Seder, Patrick J., Oishi Shigehiro, 2009, Ethnic/racial homogeneity in college students’ Facebook friendship networks and subjective well-being, Journal of Research in Personality 43(2):438–43.
 
Slany, Krystyna (ed.), 2009, Migracje kobiet Perspektywa wielowymiarowa, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
 
Small, Mario L, 2017, Someone To Talk To, New York: Oxford University Press.
 
Steinfield, Charles, Ellison Nicole B., Lampe Cliff, 2008, Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 29(6).
 
Walter, Natalia, 2016, Internetowe Wsparcie Społeczne. Studium socjopedagogiczne, Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.