Niejednoznaczny wpływ Brexitu na życie młodych Polaków w Wielkiej Brytanii

Agnieszka Trąbka,

Iga Wermińska-Wiśnicka


Ambiguous impact of Brexit on young Poles living in the United Kingdom

The paper aims to analyse the impact of Brexit on the social anchoring of young Poles in the United Kingdom in four spheres of their lives: decision and return plans; application for British citizenship; buying properties; well-being and life satisfaction. The article is based on research conducted within the project „CEEYouth: The comparative study of young migrants from Poland and Lithuania in the context of Brexit”. We also handle statistics data from the Office for National Statistics as well as qualitative data from three waves of Qualitative Longitudinal Research of 41 young (aged 19–34) Polish post-accession migrants in the UK. We find that it is hard to unambiguously assess the impact of Brexit on the mentioned spheres of young Poles’ lives. Firstly, it is caused by the fact that different sources of data show results which are contrasting and secondly, the reactions of people are dynamically changing within the lapse of time. Therefore, it could be surely said that Brexit has impacted the lives of young Polish migrants, but it has caused neither mass return, nor the general willingness to naturalise. Although the results of the Brexit referendum have caused disturbance amid many Poles, it has not impacted their life decisions or, according to statistics, their well-being.

Słowa kluczowe: Brexit, post-accession migration, Poles in the United Kingdom, social anchoring, well-being
Blachnicka-Ciacek D., Grabowska I., Hekiert D., Pustulka P., Sarnowska J., Trąbka A., Werminska-Wisnicka I., Barcevicius E., Budginaite-Mackine I., Jonaviciene D., Klimaviciute L., Vezikauskaite J., Parutis V. (2019), CEEYouth: The comparative study of young migrants from Poland and Lithuania in the context of Brexit. Combining public statistics, web-survey and asynchronous interviewing. „Youth Working Papers”, nr 10/2019, Warszawa: Youth Research Center, Uniwersytet SWPS.
Botterill K., Hancock J. (2019), Rescaling Belonging in ‘Brexit Britain’: Spatial Identities and Practices of Polish Nationals in Scotland after the U.K. Referendum on European Union Membership. Population, Space and Place: Special Issue: Negotiating Brexit: Migrant spatialities and identities in a changing Europe, Vol. 25, Issue 1.
Cekiera R. (2014), Doświadczenie tymczasowości w narracjach młodych polskich migrantów poakcesyjnych, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Nomos.
Creswell, J. W. (2009a), Editorial: Mapping the field of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 3, Issue 2, s. 95–108.
Creswell, J. W. (2009b), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creswell, J.W., Clark, V.L.P. (2007), Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Currie S. (2016), Reflecting on Brexit: Migration Myths and What Comes next for EU Migrants in the UK? Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, Vol. 38, Issue 3, s. 337–42.
Diener E. (1996), Traits Can Be Powerful, but are not Enough: Lessons from Subjective Well-Being, Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 30, Issue 3, s. 389–399, Doi:10.1006/jrpe.1996.0027.
Drozdowicz B. (2018), The impact of Brexit on inclusion and integration of Poles in the UK,
w: Fleming M. (red.), Brexit and Polonia: Challenges facing the Polish Community during the process of Britain leaving the European Union, London: Puno Press, s. 134–138.
Eade J., Drinkwater S., Garapich M. (2006), Class and Ethnicity: Polish Migrants in London, Research Report for the RES-000-22-1294 ESRC Project, s. 24–44.
Engbersen G., Snel E. (2011), Liquid Migration. Dynamic and fluid patterns of postaccession migration flows, w: Glorius B., Grabowska-Lusińska I., Kuvik A. (red.), Mobility in Transition, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, s. 21–40.
Garapich M. (2019), Migracje z Polski do Wielkiej Brytanii: geneza, stan dzisiejszy, wyzwania na przyszłość, wstęp, czynniki wypychające i przyciągające, Studia BAS, nr 4(60), s. 13–30.
Gawlewicz A., Sotkasiira T. (2020), Revisiting Geographies of Temporalities: The Significance of Time in Migrant Responses to Brexit, Population, Space and Place, Vol. 26 Issue 1,
Grzymała-Kazłowska A. (2016), Social Anchoring: Immigrant Identity, Security and Integration Reconnected? Sociology, 506: 1123–1139.
Grzymała-Kazłowska, A. (2017), From connecting to social anchoring: Adaptation and ‘settlement’ of Polish migrants in the UK, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 442: 252–269, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1341713
Guma T., Dafydd Jones R. (2019), Where Are We Going to Go Now?’ European Union Migrants’ Experiences of Hostility, Anxiety, and (Non-)Belonging during Brexit, Population, Space and Place, Vol. 25, Issue 1,
Iglicka K. (2010), Powroty Polaków po 2004 roku. W pętli pułapki migracji, Warszawa: Scholar.
Holdsworth C., Morgan D. (2005), Transitions in context: Leaving Home, Independence and Adulthood, Berkshire: Open University Press.
Kilkey M., (2017), Conditioning Family-Life at the Intersection of Migration and Welfare: The Implications for ‘Brexit Families, Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 46, Issue 4, s. 797–814.
Kilkey M., Ryan L. (2020), Unsettling Events: Understanding Migrants’ Responses to Geopolitical Transformative Episodes through a Life-Course Lens, International Migration Review,
Klimavičiūtė L., Parutis V., Jonavičienė D., Karolak M., Wermińska-Wiśnicka I.. (2020). The Impact of Brexit on Young Poles and Lithuanians in the UK: Reinforced Temporariness of Migration Decisions. Central and Eastern European Migration Review 9(1): 127–142. doi: 10.17467/ceemr.2020.06
Lahuerta S.B., Iusmen I. (2020), EU Nationals’ Vulnerability in the Context of Brexit: The Case of Polish Nationals, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies,
Lulle A., King R., Dvorakova V., Szkudlarek A. (2018), Between disruptions and connections: “New” European Union migrants in the United Kingdom before and after the Brexit, Population, Space and Place, Special Issue: Negotiating Brexit: Migrant spatialities and identities in a changing Europe” Vol. 25, Issue 1,
Lulle A., Moroşanu L., and King R. (2017), And then came Brexit: Experiences and future plans of young EU migrants in the London region, Population, Space and Place: Special Issue: New European Youth Mobilities: Motivations, Experiences and Future Prospects, Vol. 24, Issue 1,
McGhee D., Moreh C., Vlachantoni A. (2017), An ‘Undeliberate Determinacy’? The Changing
Migration Strategies of Polish Migrants in the UK in Times of Brexit, Journal of Ethnic and
Migration Studies, Vol. 43, Issue 3, s. 2109–2130, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1299622.
Meho L.I. (2006), E-mail interviewing in qualitative research: A methodological discussion, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 57, s. 1284–1295. doi:10.1002/asi.20416.
Neale B. (2019), What Is Qualitative Longitudinal Research? Bloomsbury Research Methods Series, London: Bloomsbury Academic.
O’Connor H., Madge C., Shaw R., Wellens J. (2008), Internet-based interviewing, w: Fielding N.G., Lee R.M., Blank G. (red.), The Sage handbook of online research methods. London: Sage.
ONS, (2019a), A profile analysis of Lithuanian-born and Polish-born young people in the UK, 2015 to 2018, [data dostępu: 21.03.2020].
ONS, (2019b), Dataset: Personal well-being estimates, [data dostępu: 31.03.2020].
ONS, (2019c), Immigration statistics data tables, year ending September 2019, [data dostępu: 30.03.2020].
ONS (2019d), Personal and economic well-being: what matters most to our life satisfaction?
whatmattersmosttoourlifesatisfaction [data dostępu: 31.03.2020].
ONS, (2019e), Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality,, [data dostępu: 30.03.2020].
ONS (2018a), Labour Force Survey User Guide volume 10 – analysis of data collected by the Labour Force Survey: Which dataset should I use, [data dostępu: 27.05.2020].
ONS (2018b), Personal well-being frequently asked questions, [data dostępu: 01.03.2020].
ONS (2012), Annual population survey (APS) QMI, [data dostępu: 01.04.2020].
Ranta R., Nancheva N. (2019), Unsettled: Brexit and European Union Nationals’ Sense of Belonging. Population, Space and Place: Special Issue: Negotiating Brexit: Migrant spatialities and identities in a changing Europe, Vol. 25, Issue 1,
Ratislavová K., Ratislav J. (2014), Asynchronous email interview as a qualitative research method in the humanities, Human Affairs, Vol. 24, Issue 4, s. 452–460.
Ryan L. (2018), Differentiated Embedding: Polish Migrants in London Negotiating Belonging over Time, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 44, Issue 2, s. 233–51.
Rzepnikowska A. (2019), Racism and Xenophobia Experienced by Polish Migrants in the UK before and after Brexit Vote, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 45, Issue 1, s. 61–77,
Sime D., Kakela E., Corson S., Tyrrell N., McMellon C., Kelly C., Moskal M. (2017), Eastern European Young People in Brexit Britain: Racism, Anxiety, Research and Policy Briefing, Issue 1, Report.
Slany K., Ślusarczyk M. (2010) ,Zostać czy wracać. Dylematy emigranta, w: Grzymała-Moszczyńska, Kwiatkowska A., Roszak J. (red.), Drogi i rozdroża, Kraków: Nomos.
Sotkasiira T., Gawlewicz A. (2020), The politics of embedding and the right to remain in post-Brexit Britain. Ethnicities.
Tashakkori A., Teddlie C. (2003), Handbook on mixed methods in the behavioural and social sciences. Thousand Oaks, C.A.: Sage.
Trąbka A., Pustulka P. (2020), Bees & butterflies: Polish migrants’ social anchoring, mobility and risks post-Brexit, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46:13, 2664–2681, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1711721
Trevena P. (2019), Brexit and EU Citizens in Scotland: Impacts, Challenges, and Support Needs. EU Citizens Right Project, Report.
Tyrrell N., Sime D., Kelly C., McMellon C. (2018), Belonging in Brexit Britain: Central and Eastern European 1.5 Generation Young People’s Experiences, Population, Space and Place, Vol. 25, Issue 1,
White A. (2011), Polish Families and Migration Since EU Accession. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Kwartalnik ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana w internecie.