Exploring the Model of Legal Consciousness Formation Among Foreigners Working in Poland. Preliminary Insights

Jakub Krzysztof Adamski,

Izabela Florczak


The article focuses on the formation of legal consciousness among economic migrants from third countries to Poland as an important factor that contributes to their integration in the host country. First, the concept of legal consciousness is discussed, and a migration-adjusted model of how it is formed is proposed. As special emphasis is put on legal knowledge, an overview of the legal provisions of migration employment law is presented. Finally, based on articles and reports on economic migration to Poland, we ascertain how migrants acquire legal knowledge, what the flow of information is, where interferences are and how they impact migrants’legal consciousness. Based on articles and reports, we identify possible breakdowns in the information flow between key labour market actors (e.g. employers, public offices that manage the formal side of the employment process, and intermediaries, such as temporary employment agencies) and migrants. The complexity of regulations often leaves employers and foreign workers dependent on intermediaries. Without knowing the applicable legal provisions, much less understanding them, migrants tend to lack all types of legal knowledge. Thus, they may develop attitudes and legal consciousness based on false premises, further impacting their legal status in the host country. Even if they acquire knowledge, its quality can be questioned due to the fraud and deception that are often reported. Particularly troublesome is the limited contact between public offices and migrants, depriving them of reliable legal information.

Słowa kluczowe: legal consciousness, economic migrants, labour migration into Poland

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Act of the 20th of April 2004 on employment promotion and labour market institutions. JL of 2022, item 690, as amended.

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