Sprawczość i tożsamość w grach eksploracyjnych

Mateusz Felczak

Abstrakt

Agency and Indentity in the Exploration Games


The article focuses on the connection between player’s agency and his identity in the exploration computer games. The aim of the article is to trace down the influence of various tools and interaction mechanics on ways in which players mark their presence in the game and convey their identities. The analysed titles include pure exploration games, like Proteus (Ed Key, David Kanaga, 2013) and MirrorMoon EP (Santa Ragione, 2013), as well as some titles which employ only selected mechanics of exploration games, such as The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda, 2011). Three main points of interest are examined in the article: 1) interfaces and mechanics in relation to player’s agency 2) tools that enable players to build their own narratives and shape the avatars 3) agency in the context of game goals and tasks assigned to a player by the game itself. The theoretical context of the article is linked to the Giorgio Agamben’s theory of dispositif.

 

Słowa kluczowe: gry eksploracyjne, sprawczość, podmiotowość
References

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Agamben G., Profanacje, przeł. M. Kwaterko, Warszawa 2006.

Bogost I., Unit Operations. An Approach to Videogame Criticism, Cambridge 2006.

Flynn B., Towards an Aesthetics of Navigation. Spatial Organisation in the Cosmology of the Adventure Game, „M/C Journal of Media and Culture”2000, nr 3 (5),http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0010/navigation.php [dostęp: 25.05.2015].

Harvey A., Samyn M., Realtime Art Manifesto,2006, http://tale-of-tales.com/tales/RAM.html[dostęp: 8.09.2015].

Hutchison A., Making the Water Move: Techno-Historic Limits in the Game Aesthetics of Myst and Doom,„Game Studies”2008, vol. 8, issue 1, http://gamestudies.org/0801/articles/hutch [dostęp: 25.05.2015].

Rossignol J., Ramble on Rambling: Exploration Games,2008, http://www.rockpapershotgun.com/2008/06/03/ramble-on-rambling-exploration-games/ [dostęp: 25.05. 2015].

Taylor C., Źródła podmiotowości. Narodziny tożsamości nowoczesnej, przeł. A. Lipszyc, Warszawa 2012.

Waugh E.J., GDC: Ubisofts Hocking Talks The Power Of Self-Exploration,9 marca 2007, http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=13085 [dostęp: 13.09.2015].

 

Źródła i materiały online

Gry Exploration w serwisie Steam (stan na 10 maja 2015), http://store.steampowered.com/tag/en/Exploration/

Społeczność Steam: Proteus: Zrzuty ekranu (stan na 8 września 2015), http://steamcommunity.com/app/219680/screenshots/

 

Ludografia

BioWare, 2000, Baldur’s Gate II: Shadows of Amn [PC], Black Isle Studios, Interplay         Entertainment.

Tale of Tales, 2012, Bientôt lété[PC], Auriea Harvey, Michaël Samyn.

Infinity Ward, 2005, Call of Duty II [PC], Activision.

FromSoftware, 2011, Dark Souls [PlayStation 3], FromSoftware, Namco Bandai Games.

Blizzard Entertainment, 2012, Diablo III [PC], Blizzard Entertainment, Square Enix.

Santa Ragione, 2014, Fotonica [iOS, PC], Santa Ragione.

The Fullbright Company, 2013, Gone Home [PC], The Fullbright Company.

Rockstar, 1997–2013, Grand Theft Auto (I–V) [PC, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4], Rockstar Games.

Tale of Tales, 2013, Luxuria Superbia [iOS], Tale of Tales.

BioWare, 2007–2012, Mass Effect (I–III) [PC, PlayStation 3], Microsoft Game Studios,      Electronic Arts.

Mojang, 2011, Minecraft [PC], Mojang, Microsoft Studios.

Santa Ragione, 2013, MirrorMoon EP, Santa Ragione.

Cyan, 1993, Myst [Mac OS], Brøderbund.

Ed Key, David Kanaga, 2013, Proteus [PC], Ed Key.

Bethesda Game Studios, 2011, The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim [PC, PlayStation 3], Bethesda Softworks.

Blizzard Entertainment, 2004, World of Warcraft [PC], Blizzard Entertainment.

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