Election Marketing and Communication Management in Local Public Sphere

Ilona Biernacka-Ligięza


The proposed paper is going to be an analysis of communication management during local elections campaigns in Poland in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018. The 2002 was chosen as the starting point of the analysis because of the following facts: 1) those were the first direct local elections for mayors/municipality heads; 2) the number of council members was reduced by law all of which heralded an interesting competition. The high turnover rate of candidates for councillors across different regions of Poland in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018 local government elections has been attributed in part to the volatility caused by greater media and public interest in council issues. The paper is based on: the theory analysis, qualitative and quantitative research (questionnaires), statistical analysis (questionnaires and reports) and content analysis (selected papers; radio/TV stations; web pages). Surveys were carried out in: 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. The survey was followed at the region of Lower Silesia. In this paper there is presented detailed data from the study of Dzierżoniów county. There were chosen varied types of communes: periphery and centre of the region. The group of around 2500 respondents was analysed.

Słowa kluczowe: local community, local elections, local media, communication management, political marketing

Baum M.A. (2012). “Preaching to the choir or converting the flock. Presidential communication strategies in the Age of Three Medias”. In: R.L. Fox, J.M. Ramos (eds.), iPolitics: Citizens, Elections and Governing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beckman A. (2018). “Political Marketing and Intellectual Autonomy”. The Journal of Political Philosophy, Vol. 26(1), pp. 24–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jopp.12126.

Biernacka-Ligięza I. (2014). “New Media in the Process of Shaping Local Democracy – the Case of Poland”. In: A.M.G. Solo (ed.), Political Campaigning in the Information Age (pp. 88–110). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Cameron M.P., Barrett P., Stewardson B. (2016). “Can Social Media Predict Election Results? Evidence from New Zealand”. Journal of Political Marketing, Vol. 15(4), pp. 416–432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2014.959690.

Curtis L., Netten A., Moriarty J. (2010). “The Expected Working Life of a Social Worker”. British Journal of Social Work, Vol. 40(5), pp. 1628–1643. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp039.

Eyrich N., Padman M.L., Sweetser K.D. (2008). “PR Practitioners’ Use of Social Media Tools and Communication Technology”. Public Relations Review, Vol. 34, pp. 412–414.

Henneberg S.C.M. (2002). “Understanding political marketing”. In: N.J. O’Shaughnessy, S.C.M. Henneberg (eds.), The Idea of Political Marketing (pp. 93–170). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kim E. (2015). “A Comparative Study on Social Media Use and Public Participation in Korea and the United States: Does Social Media Matter?”. The Korean Journal of Policy Studies, Vol. 30(1), pp. 207–230.

Kornacka M., Sikora K. (2014). “Wyborczy (nie)profesjonalizm”. In: M. Marmola, J. Podgórska-Rykała, K. Stelmach (eds.), Vademecum Śląsk. Wybory samorządowe 2014 w województwie śląskim (pp. 233–251). Katowice: Towarzystwo Inicjatyw Naukowych.

Kotler P., Keller K. (2006). Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Larsson A.O., Moe H. (2012). “Studying Political Microblogging: Twitter Users in the 2010 Swedish Election Campaign”. New Media and Society, Vol. 14(5), pp. 729–747.

Lees-Marshment J. (2001a). Political Marketing and British Political Parties: The Party’s Just Begun. Manchester: Manchester University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444811422894.

Lees-Marshment J. (2001b). “The Marriage of Politics and Marketing”. Political Studies, Vol. 49(4), pp. 692–713. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.00337.

Luo X.R., Zhang J., Marquis Ch. (2016). “Mobilization in the Internet Age: Internet Activism and Corporate Response”. The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 59(6), pp. 1–24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2015.0693.

Mangold W.G., Faulds D.J. (2009). “Social Media: The New Hybrid Element of the Promotion Mix”. Business Horizons, Vol. 52(4), pp. 357–365. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2009.03.002.

McNair B. (1999). An Introduction to Political Communication. London: Routledge.

Newman B.I. (1994). The Marketing of the President: Political Marketing as Campaign Strategy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Newman B.I. (1999). The Mass Marketing of Politics: Democracy in An Age of Manufactured Images. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Piasecki A.K. (2003). “Samorząd terytorialny a media lokalne (1990–2002). Proba syntezy”. Zeszyty Prasoznawcze, Vol. 1(2), pp. 141–155.

Rasanen P., Kouvo A. (2007). “Linked or Divided by the Web? Internet and Sociability in Four European Countries”. Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 2(10), pp. 219–241.

Ringold D., Weitz B. (2007). “The American Marketing Association Definition of Marketing: Moving from Lagging to Leading Indicator”. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Vol. 26(2), pp. 251–260.

Shama A. (1976). “The Marketing of Political Candidates”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 4(4), pp. 764–777. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009207037600400309.

Siemiński W. (1999). Współzarządzanie gminą. Rada i zarząd gminy we wspólnocie samorządowej. Warszawa–Zielona Gora: ZCO.

Smith A. (2009). The Internet’s Role in Campaign 2008. Pew Research Center Report. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2009/04/15/the-internets-role-incampaign-2008/.

Štefko R., Dorčak P., Pollak F. (2011). “Virtual Social Networks and their Utilization for Promotion”. Polish Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 4(1), pp. 1–238.

Stromback J. (2010). “A framework for comparing political market-orientation”. In: J. Lees-Marshment, J. Stromback, Ch. Rudd (eds.), Global Political Marketing (pp. 16–33). London: Routledge.

Taylor M. (2010). “Public relations in the enactment of civil society”. In: R.L. Heath (ed.), Handbook of Public Relations (pp. 5–12). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Taylor M., Kent M.L. (2014). “Dialogic Engagement: Clarifying Foundational Concepts”. Journal of Public Relations Research, Vol. 26(5), pp. 384–398.

Wybory Samorządowe 2018, Raport CBOS, nr 86/2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cbos.pl/PL/publikacje/raporty.php (access: 7.05.2020).

Zelick S.A. (2013). “The Perception of Web 2.0 Technologies on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study”. Creative Education, Vol. 4(7), pp. 53–93.

Wersją pierwotną jest wersja elektroniczna publikowana kwartalnie w internecie