Introduction. Challenges in long-term care in Europe

Milena Pavlova,

Marzena Tambor,

Lena Praznovszky,

Stanisława Golinowska,

Wim Groot


* Przygotowanie do wydania elektronicznego finansowane w ramach umowy 637/P-DUN/2019 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę.

Słowa kluczowe: starzenie, opieka długoterminowa, Europa, ageing, long-term care, Europe

1. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Ageing 2015 (ST/ESA/SER.A/390), (accessed: 10.11.2019).

2. Kingston A., Wohland P., Wittenberg R., Robinson L., Brayne C., Matthews F.E.,..., Arthur A., Is late-life dependency increasing or not? A comparison of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS), “The Lancet” 2017; 390 (10103): 1676‒1684.

3. OECD, Long-term Care, 2019, (accessed: 11.12.2019).

4. European Commission, Joint Report on Health Care and Long-Term Care Systems & Fiscal Sustainability, Vol. 1, European Commission, Brussels 2016.

5. Leichsenring K., Billings J., Nies H., Long-term Care in  Europe: Improving Policy and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK 2013.

6. WHO, Everybody’s business-strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action, 2007, (accessed: 10.09.2019).

7. Held D., Models of Democracy, Stanford University Press, Redwood City, CA 2006.

8. Olsen J.P., Democratic order, autonomy and accountability, in: The Routledge Handbook to Accountability and Welfare State Reforms in Europe, Routledge, Abingdon, UK 2016: 29‒44.

9. Pfau-Effinger B., Culture and welfare state policies: Reflections on a complex interrelation, “Journal of Social Policy” 2005; 34 (1): 3‒20.

10. Theobald H., Restructuring elder care systems in Europe: Policy-field, policy transfer and negative integration. Paper presented at the ISA Conference, “Social Policies: Local Experiments, Travelling Ideas”, Montreal 2009, https://
tion/242481850_Restructuring_elder_care_systems_in_Europe_Policy-field_policy_transfer_and_negative_integration/links/0c96052e0dd6899aee000000.pdf (accessed: 03.11.2019).

11. Da Roit B., Le Bihan B., Similar and yet so different: cashfor- care in six European countries’ long-term care policies, “The Milbank Quarterly” 2010; 88 (3): 286‒309. 

12. Theobald H., Kern K., The introduction of long-term care policy schemes: Policy development, policy transfer and policy change, “Policy & Politics” 2011; 39 (3): 325‒342.

13. Zaidi A., Gasior K., Zolyomi E., Schmidt A., Rodrigues R., Marin B., Measuring active and healthy ageing in Europe, “Journal of European Social Policy” 2017; 27 (2): 138‒157.

14. Boudiny K., Mortelmans D., A critical perspective: Towards a broader understanding of’ active ageing’, “E-journal of Applied Psychology” 2011; 7 (1): 8‒14.

15. Lassen A.J., Moreira T., Unmaking old age: Political and cognitive formats of active ageing, “Journal of Aging Studies” 2014; 30: 33‒46.

16. Vabo S.I., Actors and governance arrangements in longterm care for older people, in: Rescaling Social Policies towards Multilevel Governance in Europe, Routledge, Abingdon, UK 2017: 343‒363.

17. Österle A., Long‐term Care in Central and South‐Eastern Europe: Challenges and Perspectives in Addressing a ‘New’ Social Risk, “Social Policy & Administration” 2010; 44 (4): 461‒480.

18. Riedel M., Kraus M., Mayer S., Organization and supply of long‐term care services for the elderly: A bird’s‐eye view of old and new EU member states, “Social Policy & Administration” 2016; 50 (7): 824‒845.

19. Barlow J., Roehrich J., Wright S., Europe sees mixed results from public-private partnerships for building and managing health care facilities and services, “Health Affairs” 2013; 32 (1): 146‒154.

20. Costa-Font J., Courbage C., Long-Term Care Insurance: Partnership or Crowding Out?, in: Financing Long-Term Care in Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, London 2012: 91‒100.

21. Deusdad B.A., Pace C., Anttonen A., Facing the challenges in the development of long-term care for older people in Europe in the context of an economic crisis, “Journal of Social Service Research” 2016; 42 (2): 144‒150.

22. Harrington C., Jacobsen F.F., Panos J., Pollock A., Sutaria S., Szebehely M., Marketization in long-term care: A crosscountry comparison of large for-profit nursing home chains, “Health Services Insights” 2017; 10: 1178632917710533.

23. Pavolini E., Ranci C., Restructuring the welfare state: Reforms in long-term care in Western European countries, “Journal of European Social Policy” 2008; 18 (3): 246‒259.

24. Costa‐Font J., Courbage C., Swartz K., Financing longterm care: Ex ante, ex post or both?, “Health Economics” 2015; 24: 45‒57.

25. Rothgang H., Social insurance for long‐term care: An evaluation of the German model, “Social Policy & Administration” 2010; 44 (4): 436‒460.

26. Hassink W.H., Van den Berg B., Time-bound opportunity costs of informal care: consequences for access to professional care, caregiver support, and labour supply estimates, “Social Science & Medicine” 2011; 73 (10): 1508‒1516.

27. Oliva-Moreno J., Peña-Longobardo L.M., Vilaplana-Prieto C., An estimation of the value of informal care provided to dependent people in Spain, “Applied Health Economics and Health Policy” 2015; 13 (2): 223‒231.

28. Karimi M., Brazier J., Health, health-related quality of life, and quality of life: What is the difference?, “Pharmacoeconomics” 2016; 34 (7): 645‒649.

29. Şahin D.S., Özer Ö., Yanardağ M.Z., Perceived social support, quality of life and satisfaction with life in elderly people, “Educational Gerontology” 2019; 45 (1): 69‒77.

30. Coleman E.A., Falling through the cracks: challenges and opportunities for improving transitional care for persons with continuous complex care needs, “Journal of the American Geriatrics Society” 2003; 51 (4): 549‒555.

31. Berg K., Mor V., Morris J., Murphy K.M., Moore T., Harris Y., Identification and evaluation of existing nursing homes quality indicators, “Health care Financing Review” 2002; 23 (4): 19.

32. Greve B., Long-term Care for the Elderly in Europe: Development and Prospects, Routledge, Abingdon, UK 2016.

33. Kim E.-Y., Yang B.-M., Cost-effectiveness of long-term care services in South Korea, “Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics” 2005; 40 (1): 73‒83.

34. Lau J.Y.C., Wong E.L.Y., Chung R.Y., Law S.C., Threapleton D., Kiang N.,..., Yeoh E.K., Collaborate across silos: Perceived barriers to integration of care for the elderly from the perspectives of service providers, “The International Journal of Health Planning and Management” 2018; 33 (3): e768‒e780.

35. Busse R., Competition in healthcare – a health systems’ perspective, “Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen” 2009; 103 (10): 608‒615.

36. Leichsenring K., Integrated care for older people in Europe ‒ latest trends and perceptions, “International Journal of Integrated Care” 2012; 12.

37. Arentshorst M.E., Kloet R.R., Peine A., Intergenerational Housing: The Case of Humanitas Netherlands, “Journal of Housing For the Elderly” 2019; 33 (3): 244‒256.

38. Tinker A., Ginn J., Ribe E., Assisted living platform – The long term care revolution: A study of innovatory models to support older people with disabilities in the Netherlands, King’s College London, London 2013.

39. Fujisawa R., Colombo F., The long-term care workforce: overview and strategies to adapt supply to a growing demand, 2009, -strategies-to-adapt-supply-to-a-growing-demand_225350638472?crawler=true (accessed: 10.12.2019).

40. Kuhlmann E., Batenburg R., Groenewegen P.P., Larsen C., Bringing a European perspective to the health human re118 sources debate: A scoping study, “Health Policy” 2013; 110 (1): 6‒13.

41. Aiken L.H., Sloane D.M., Bruyneel L., Van den Heede K., Sermeus W., Consortium R., Nurses’ reports of working conditions and hospital quality of care in 12 countries in Europe, “International Journal of Nursing Studies” 2013; 50 (2): 143‒153.

42. Hollinger-Smith L., Ortigara A., Changing culture: Creating a long-term impact for a quality long-term care workforce, “Alzheimer’s Care Today” 2004; 5 (1): 60‒70.

43. Hussein S., Manthorpe J., An international review of the long-term care workforce: Policies and shortages, “Journal of Aging & Social Policy” 2005; 17 (4): 75‒94.

44. Chen L., Evans T., Anand S., Boufford J.I., Brown H., Chowdhury M.,..., Elzinga G., Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis, “The Lancet” 2004; 364 (9449): 1984‒1990.

45. Rahmani A.M., Gia T.N., Negash B., Anzanpour A., Azimi I., Jiang M., Liljeberg P., Exploiting smart e-Health gateways at the edge of healthcare Internet-of-Things: A fog computing approach, “Future Generation Computer Systems” 2018; 78: 641‒658.

46. Georgiou A., Marks A., Braithwaite J., Westbrook J.I., Gaps, disconnections, and discontinuities ‒ the role of information exchange in the delivery of quality long-term care, “The Gerontologist” 2012; 53 (5): 770‒779.

47. Kruse C.S., Mileski M., Alaytsev V., Carol E., Williams A., Adoption factors associated with electronic health record among long-term care facilities: a systematic review, “BMJ Open” 2015; 5(1): e006615.

48. Marcotte L., Kirtane J., Lynn J., McKethan A., Integrating health information technology to achieve seamless care transitions, “Journal of Patient Safety” 2015; 11 (4): 185‒190.

49. van der Haak M., Wolff A.C., Brandner R., Drings P., Wannenmacher M., Wetter T., Data security and protection in cross-institutional electronic patient records, “International Journal of Medical Informatics” 2003; 70 (2‒3): 117‒130.

50. Liu D., Castle N.G., Health information technology in nursing homes, “Journal of Applied Gerontology” 2009; 28 (1): 38‒58.

51. Agree E.M., The potential for technology to enhance independence for those aging with a disability, “Disability and Health Journal” 2014; 7 (1): S33‒S39.

52. Barlow J., Singh D., Bayer S., Curry R., A systematic review of the benefits of home telecare for frail elderly people and those with long-term conditions, “Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare” 2007; 13 (4): 172‒179.

53. Pavlova M., Innovative Mechanisms for Sustainable Long-Term Care Systems in Europe ‒ EuroLTCS Project, 2016, (accessed: 10.11.2019).

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Pierwotną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.