Teoretyczne podstawy badań nad wydarzeniami medialnymi

Małgorzata Kołodziejczak,

Agnieszka Stępińska

Abstrakt

The aim of this paper is to present and discuss theoretical background for media events studies that have been conducted since the 1980s. The paper collects all major perspectives and studies in order to provide a complete picture of a theoretical approach to research on the media events. First, the paper reviews concepts developed by E. Durkheim and so called neodurkheimists, including E. Rothenbuhler and W. Shils. These concepts provided the background and led to a deeper understanding and an explanation of symbolic dimensions of social relations, contemporary ceremonies, rituals (including political ones), and the role of the media in creating the social and political reality. One of Durkheim’s fundamental concepts distinguishing sacrum and profanum provided the background for a concept of media events developed by E. Katz and D. Dayan. While the classic version of this concept included just three main types of the media events (conquest, coronation, and contest), the more recent one is extended and includes six types. Based on the empirical studies conducted by T. Liebes, E. Rothenbuhler, and G. Weimann (to name just some of the scholars), three more types have been added, namely: coercion, disaster, and war. They share a disruptive character (instead if integrative one) and they describe relations between the organizers of an event, media organizations, and the audience in a different manner than the classic version of the concept. For this reason, the idea of including them into a classic concept seems to be criticized by some scholars, including E. Rothenbuhler. Instead, he proposes that a concept of ritual  communication as a broader frame for studies on media events should be used.

Słowa kluczowe: media events, ritual communication, Durkheim, news value

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