Historical tradition and modern transformations of the algerian and persian housing environment

Yuliia Ivashko,

Andrii Dmytrenko,

Peng Chang

Abstrakt

Historically, the urban situation in the cities and towns of Persia and Algeria was highly specific. The hot dry climate contributed to a street network, which was protected from the sun as much as possible. Climate conditions determined the appearance of houses with flat roofs, small windows and white walls. The entire urban planning system had the main centre - the city (town) mosque. There were smaller mosques in the structure of residential areas, densely surrounded by houses. Just as under the influence of climate a certain type of residential building took shape, these same factors formed a characteristic type of mosque in the housing environment.

Globalist trends have affected even such a conservative sphere as Islamic religious architecture, as it gradually toned down striking regional features, which is explained by the typicality of modern building materials and structures and the international activity of various architectural and construction firms in different corners of the world. Over the centuries, two opposing images of the mosque have emerged - the pointedly magnificent Persian and the fortress-type of Maghreb (typical for Algeria) types. This paper reviews how specific climatic conditions and historical processes influenced the use of building materials, structures and decoration in the mosques of Persia’s and Algeria’s different regions.

Today we observe an erosion of regional features in the form and layout of modern mosques, which are analysed on the basis of the examples given. On the basis of a comparison of authentic mosques and erected by foreigners, it is proved how local features are gradually being eliminated and what this leads to.

Słowa kluczowe: Persian houses and mosques, Algerian houses and mosques, natural conditions, building materials, internationalisation of architecture
References

[1] Beguin, François, 1983, Arabisances. Décor architectural et tracé urbain en Afrique du nord 1830 – 1950, Paris: Dunod.

[2] Bourouiba, Rachid, 1982, Abd Al Mu’min flambeau des Almohades, Alger: SNED.

[3] Benyoucef, Brahim, 1994, Introduction à l’histoire de l’architecture islamique. Alger: OPU.

[4] Brosselard, Charles, 1858, Les inscriptions arabes de Tlemcen, Revue africaine, 14, p. 86 -94.

[5] Golvin, Lucien, 1960, La mosquee, ses origines, sa morfologie, ses divers fonctions. Son role dans la vie musulmane, Paris: Reliure inconnue.

[6] Golvin, Lucien, 1974, L’architecture religieuse des grands Abbasides, la mosquée d’Ibn Tulun, l’architecture des Aghlabides, In: Essai sur l’architecture religieuse musulmane, vol. 3, Paris, p. 192-198.

[7] Grube, Ernst J., Dickie James, Grabar Oleg et al., 1984, Architecture of the Islam World. Its History and Social Meanings, London: Thames & Hudson.

[8] Habib, Allah Ayat Allahi, 2007, The History of the Iranian art, St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Centre for Oriental Studies Publishers.

[9] Ivashko Yu., Rezga K., 2018, Study Methodology of the Architectural Periodization of Algerian Mosques and the Ritual Role of Elements (Mihrab, Minbar, Qibla, Bath for Ablution) in the Islamic Worship Service, Woda i zieleń w architekturze, Środowisko Mieszkaniowe (Housing environment), 22, р. 28-36.

[10] Ivashko Yu., Rezga K., 2019, Specific features and issues of preserving the historic cities of Algeria – centres of islamic construction, Wiadomości Konserwatorskie, Journal of Heritage Conser­vation, 58, p.143-147.

[11] Khelifa, Abderrahmane, 2010, Cirta Constantine la capitale celeste, Alger: Colorset.

[12] Мaciel, Lev, 2017, Islamic Architecture and Contemporary Politics: Mosques in Constantine (Algeria) and Casablanca (Morocco), Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art: Collection of articles, 7, p. 609-618.

[13] Rezga, Kouider, 2019, National identity and external influences in the architecture of Algerian Mosques (ХІсentury – 1830) (unpublished doctoral thesis, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture), Kyiv.

[14] Vayssettes, Eugène, 2002, Histoire de Constantine sous la domination Turque de 1517 – 1837, Paris: Bouchène.

[15] Zahedi, Shahab, 2017, Evolution of the architecture of mosques in Iran (8th – 18th centuries), (unpublished doctoral thesis, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture), Kyiv.

[16] Zawiya, A. A. Ali-zade, ed., 2007, Islamic Encyclopedic Dictionary, Moscow: Publishing House Ansar.