Testament Leonarda Bernsteina – The Unanswered Question w świetle zagadnień dyrygenckich

Jan Bielak

Abstrakt

Leonard Bernstein’s Testament — The Unanswered Question in the Light of Conducting Issues

In 1973, Leonard Bernstein gave a series of six lectures at Harvard University, entitled The Unanswered Question: Six talks at Harvard. This interdisciplinary course, drawing on Noam Chomsky's theory of transformational-generative grammar, presented an original conception of music as a universal language based on tonality and outlined the history of its development, concluding with Bernstein’s personal credo regarding its future. The argumentation used, although encompassing fields as diverse as linguistics, literary studies, philosophy and art history, was based primarily on musical analyses presented at the piano, supplemented by recordings of the symphonic works being discussed, performed under the baton of Bernstein himself. The Harvard lectures thus represent the summa of his aesthetic reflections and performance experiences, providing a unique insight into his views on music and its interpretation. This paper focuses on synthesising these views, subjecting them to factual verification, and then showing their influence on Bernstein's art of conducting through the example of the recordings used in The Unanswered Question series, focusing in particular on the issue of expression.

Słowa kluczowe: Leonard Bernstein, The Unanswered Question, conducting, linguistics
References

Bernstein L., The Unanswered Question: Six Talks at Harvard, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London 1976.

Burton H., Leonard Bernstein, Anchor Books, New York 1994.

Cairns D., The Unanswered Question, „New York Times”, 23.05.1976.

Chomsky N., Language and Mind, Cambridge University Press, New York 2006.

Dąbrowska E., What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anybody seen it?, „Frontiers in Psychology”, 23.06.2015, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00852 [dostęp: 31.12.2021].

Fernald A., Marchman V.A., Language Learning in Infancy, w: Handbook of Psycholinguistics, red. M. Traxler, Morton Gernsbacher, Elsevier–Tokyo 2006.

Gleick J., Wither Bernstein?, „The Harvard Crimson”, 08.01.1975.

Horowitz J., Professor Lenny, „The New York Review of Books”, 10.06.1993.

Jackendoff R., The Unanswered Question by Leonard Bernstein, „Language” 1977, nr 4.

Jarzębska A., Wokół pojęcia tonalności w muzyce, „Teoria Muzyki” 2018, nr 12.

Keiler A., Bernstein’s The Unanswered Question and the Problem of Musical Competence, „The Musical Quarterly” 1978, nr 2.

McGilvray J.A., Noam Chomsky, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Noam-Chomsky/Rule-systems-in-Chomskyan-theories-of-language [dostęp: 31.12.2021].

Singer I., Bernstein Misrepresented, „New York Times”, 06.01.1974.

Smith J.R., The Musico-Linguistic Meme: Recursion and Musical Meaning Since Bernstein in Boston, https://www.academia.edu/2468097/The_Musico_Linguistics_Meme_Recursion_and_American_Academic_Inquiry_into_Musical_Meaning_since_Bernstein_in_Boston [dostęp: 31.12.2021].

Steinberg M., The Journey of Bernstein, „New York Times”, 16.12.1973.

The Unanswered Question (lecture series), w: Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Unanswered_Question_(lecture_series) [dostęp: 31.12.2021].

Thomas N., Bernstein’s Unanswered Question: a Journey From Linguistic Deep Structure to the Metaphysics of Music, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 2004.

Tristan and Isolde, https://www.laits.utexas.edu/tristan/motives.php [dostęp: 31.12.2021].

Wolpowitz R.A., An Observation of Leonard Bernstein’s Approach to Musical Syntax, https://www.academia.edu/42053321/AN_OBSERVATION_OF_LEONARD_BERNSTEINS_APPROACH_TO_MUSICAL_SYNTAX[dostęp: 31.12.2021].

Czasopismo w darmowym dostępie.

Czasopismo ukazuje się w sposób ciągły on-line.
Jedyną wersją czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.