In-Work Poverty: A Multi-Layered Problem Across European Union Countries

Monika Tomaszewska


The article’s primary purpose is to present an understanding of in-work poverty by defining the mentioned phenomenon uniformly in all European Union countries and by demonstrating its main determinants. First of all, it is necessary to present a complex definition of the term in-work poverty and refer it to the concept of precarious work functioning in both the legal circuit and the literature. The analysis starts by presenting the existing indicators and measurements of this phenomenon as a basis for conclusions on legal, economic, and social conditions of in-work poverty. The critical role in this regard is attributed to labour law and social security regulations and their continuous changes caused by adapting to new forms of organizations of work and to expectations coming from market competition. The broad range of analyses of phenomena in the work-poverty results from studies delivered under a project of the same name “Working Yet Poor.” The project aims to examine the regulatory structures affecting the working conditions and to assess different aspects of regulations that can have a direct and indirect impact on the occurrence of this phenomenon.

ASJC: 3308, JEL: K31

Słowa kluczowe: working poor / in-work poverty, European Union social policy, European Union law, European Pillar of Social Rights, national policy of counteracting social exclusion, biedni pracujący, polityka społeczna Unii Europejskiej, prawo Unii Europejskiej, Europejski filar praw socjalnych, polityka krajowa przeciwdziałania wykluczeniu społecznemu